Predictors of Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Findings From the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines Program

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 09/2009; 54(6):515-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.02.080
Source: PubMed


Our purpose was to determine factors independently associated with cardiac rehabilitation referral, which are currently not well described at a national level.
Substantial numbers of eligible patients are not referred to cardiac rehabilitation at hospital discharge despite proven reductions in mortality and national guideline recommendations.
We used data from the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines program, analyzing 72,817 patients discharged alive after a myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery between January 2000 and September 2007 from 156 hospitals. We identified factors associated with cardiac rehabilitation referral at discharge and performed multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for clustering, to identify which factors were independently associated with cardiac rehabilitation referral.
Mean age was 64.1 +/- 13.0 years, 68% were men, 79% were white, and 30% had diabetes, 66% hypertension, and 52% dyslipidemia; mean body mass index was 29.1 +/- 6.3 kg/m(2), and mean ejection fraction 49.0 +/- 13.6%. All patients were admitted for coronary artery disease (CAD), with 71% admitted for myocardial infarction. Overall, only 40,974 (56%) were referred to cardiac rehabilitation at discharge, ranging from 53% for myocardial infarction to 58% for percutaneous coronary intervention and to 74% for coronary artery bypass graft patients. Older age, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and the presence of most comorbidities were associated with decreased odds of cardiac rehabilitation referral.
Despite strong evidence for benefit, only 56% of eligible CAD patients discharged from these hospitals were referred to cardiac rehabilitation. Increased physician awareness about the benefits of cardiac rehabilitation and initiatives to overcome barriers to referral are critical to improve the quality of care of patients with CAD.

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Available from: Gregg C. Fonarow, May 08, 2014
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    • "Smokers more likely to be referred (AOR 1.53) Brown et al. 2009 156 hospitals in USA 72,817 "
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    ABSTRACT: Continued smoking after a cardiac event greatly increases mortality risk. Smoking cessation and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are effective in reducing morbidity and mortality. However, these two behaviors may interact; those who smoke may be less likely to access or complete CR. This review explores the association between smoking status and CR referral, attendance, and adherence. A systematic literature search was conducted examining associations between smoking status and CR referral, attendance and completion in peer-reviewed studies published through July 1st, 2014. For inclusion, studies had to report data on outpatient CR referral, attendance or completion rates and smoking status had to be considered as a variable associated with these outcomes. Fifty-six studies met inclusion criteria. In summary, a history of smoking was associated with an increased likelihood of referral to CR. However, smoking status also predicted not attending CR and was a strong predictor of CR dropout. Continued smoking after a cardiac event predicts lack of attendance in, and completion of CR. The issue of smoking following a coronary event deserves renewed attention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Preventive Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.04.009 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Patient- [13-18] and provider- [16-18] related factors affecting access to CR have been extensively studied. System-level factors have been more recently investigated [19], and factors identified included level of integration of CR within the hospital setting, degree of automation of CR referral in the inpatient setting, and capacity constraints. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patient and provider-related factors affecting access to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) have been extensively studied, but health-system administration factors have not. The objectives of this study were to investigate hospital administrators’ (HA) awareness and knowledge of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), perceptions regarding resources for and benefit of CR, and attitudes toward and implementation of inpatient transition planning for outpatient CR. Methods A cross-sectional and observational design was used. A survey was administered to 679 HAs through Canadian and Ontario databases. A descriptive examination was performed, and differences in HAs’ perceptions by role, institution type and presence of within-institution CR were compared using t-tests. Results 195 (28.7%) Canadian HAs completed the survey. Respondents reported good knowledge of what CR entails (mean=3.42±1.15/5). Awareness of the closest site was lower among HAs working in community versus academic institutions (3.88±1.24 vs. 4.34±0.90/5 respectively; p=.01). HAs in non-executive roles (4.77±0.46/5) perceived greater CR importance for patients’ care than executives (4.52±0.57; p=.001). HAs perceived CR programs should be situated in both hospitals and community settings (n=134, 71.7%). Conclusions HAs value CR as part of patients’ care, and are supportive of greater CR provision. Those working in community settings and executives may not be as aware of, or less-likely to value, CR services. CR leaders from academic institutions might consider liaising with community hospitals to raise awareness of CR benefits, and advocate for it with the executives in their home institutions.
    BMC Health Services Research 03/2013; 13(1):120. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-120 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "In a recent Canadian study, automatic referral and liaison methods, alone, and even more so when combined, considerably increased CR participation [23]. Increasing physician awareness of the benefits of CR has also been shown to increase patient participation [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac rehabilitation has a beneficial effect on the prognosis and quality of life of cardiac patients, and has been found to be cost-effective. This report describes a comprehensive and low cost educational intervention designed to increase the attendance at cardiac rehabilitation programs of patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery. A controlled prospective intervention trial. The control arm comprised 520 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery between January 2004 and May 2005 in five medical centers across Israel. This group received no additional treatment beyond usual care. The intervention arm comprised 504 patients recruited from the same cardiothoracic departments between June 2005 and November 2006. This group received oral and written explanations about the advantages of participating in cardiac rehabilitation programs and a telephone call two weeks after hospital discharge intended to further encourage their enrollment. The medical staff attended a one-hour seminar on cardiac rehabilitation. In addition, it was recommended that referral to cardiac rehabilitation be added to the letter of discharge from the hospital. Both study groups were interviewed before surgery and one-year post surgery. A one-year post-operative interview assessed factors affecting patient attendance at cardiac rehabilitation programs, as well as the structure and content of the cardiac rehabilitation programs attended. Anthropometric parameters were measured at pre- and post-operative interviews;- and medical information was obtained from patient medical records. The effect of cardiac rehabilitation on one- and three-year mortality was assessed. We report a low cost yet comprehensive intervention designed to increase cardiac rehabilitation participation by raising both patient and medical staff awareness to the potential benefits of cardiac rehabilitation. NCT00356863.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 10/2011; 11(1):60. DOI:10.1186/1471-2261-11-60 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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