Studies on the formation of hydrophobic ion-pairing complex of alendronate.
ABSTRACT A hydrophobic ion-pairing (HIP) concept considering the high dissociation property of alendronate was used as a strategy to improve the bioavailability of alendronate. Alendronate, which has a negative charge, was ion-paired with organic cations, such as tetraheptylammonium bromide (THAB) or tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI), to confer hydrophobicity to alendronate, and increase its intestinal permeability. Solutions containing various concentrations (0.5 to 100 mM) of organic cations were combined with an alendronate solution (5 mM) at molar ratios from 0.1:1 to 20:1 under various pHs (pH 2.2, 6.3 and 10.3). Alendronate exhibited high hydrophobicity when coupled with THAB at a molar ratio of 1:10 in pH 2.2. On the other hand, HIP complexes between alendronate and TBAI showed the maximum hydrophobicity at the same molar ratio at pH 10.3. The zeta potentials of alendronate from the aqueous layer of the HIP complex between alendronate and THAB or TBAI increased gradually with increasing alendronate to THAB molar ratio at pH 2.2 or pH 10.3, respectively. This is the first report of the production of hydrophobic ion-paired alendronate.
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ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine must be administered at high doses to elicit the required therapeutic response because of its very short plasma half-life due to rapid metabolism. These high doses can have severe adverse effects. In this study, polymeric microparticulate systems of gemcitabine were prepared using chitosan as a mucoadhesive polymer and Eudragit L100-55 as an enteric copolymer. The physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of the resulting systems were then evaluated. There was no endothermic peak for gemcitabine in any of the polymeric gemcitabine microparticulate systems, suggesting that gemcitabine was bound to chitosan and Eudragit L100-55 and its crystallinity was changed into an amorphous form. The polymeric gemcitabine microparticulate system showed more than 80% release of gemcitabine in 30 minutes in simulated intestinal fluid. When mucin particles were incubated with gemcitabine polymeric microparticulates, the zeta potential of the mucin particles was increased to 1.57 mV, indicating that the polymeric gemcitabine microparticulates were attached to the mucin particles. Furthermore, the F53 polymeric gemcitabine microparticulates having 150 mg of chitosan showed a 3.8-fold increased uptake of gemcitabine into Caco-2 cells over 72 hours compared with gemcitabine solution alone. Overall, these results suggest that polymeric gemcitabine microparticulate systems could be used as carriers to help oral absorption of gemcitabine.International Journal of Nanomedicine 05/2012; 7:2307-14. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S30465 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine microparticles were prepared using chitosan, polyethylene oxide or carbopol as the mucoadhesive polymer and eudragit L100-55 as the enteric polymer by a double emulsion method. The particle size and zeta potential changed from 1338.3 ± 254.1 nm to 2459.4 ± 103.6 nm and -5.16 ± 1.62 mV to 2.84 ± 0.65 mV, respectively, with increasing chitosan to gemcitabine weight ratio from 0.25 to 1. The gemcitabine-loaded microparticles without mucoadhesive polymer (F50) showed the particle size and zeta potential of 671.3 ± 58.3 nm and - 16.7 ± 1.82 mV, respectively. The cellular uptake of gemcitabine into Caco-2 cells from gemcitabine-loaded microparticles with chitosan increased with increasing incubation time in Caco-2 cells compared to that of gemcitabine-loaded microparticles with polyethylene oxide or carbopol, suggesting that chitosan might be the optimal mucoadhesive polymer. Gemcitabine microparticles will be tested to identify whether the oral absorption could be increased in the future.Journal of Microencapsulation 08/2012; 29(5):487-96. DOI:10.3109/02652048.2012.665086 · 1.88 Impact Factor