CB2 cannabinoid receptors contribute to bacterial invasion and mortality in polymicrobial sepsis.

Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2009; 4(7):e6409. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006409
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sepsis is a major healthcare problem and current estimates suggest that the incidence of sepsis is approximately 750,000 annually. Sepsis is caused by an inability of the immune system to eliminate invading pathogens. It was recently proposed that endogenous mediators produced during sepsis can contribute to the immune dysfunction that is observed in sepsis. Endocannabinoids that are produced excessively in sepsis are potential factors leading to immune dysfunction, because they suppress immune cell function by binding to G-protein-coupled CB(2) receptors on immune cells. Here we examined the role of CB(2) receptors in regulating the host's response to sepsis.
The role of CB(2) receptors was studied by subjecting CB(2) receptor wild-type and knockout mice to bacterial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. We report that CB(2) receptor inactivation by knockout decreases sepsis-induced mortality, and bacterial translocation into the bloodstream of septic animals. Furthermore, CB(2) receptor inactivation decreases kidney and muscle injury, suppresses splenic nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, and diminishes the production of IL-10, IL-6 and MIP-2. Finally, CB(2) receptor deficiency prevents apoptosis in lymphoid organs and augments the number of CD11b(+) and CD19(+) cells during CLP.
Taken together, our results establish for the first time that CB(2) receptors are important contributors to septic immune dysfunction and mortality, indicating that CB(2) receptors may be therapeutically targeted for the benefit of patients suffering from sepsis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to illustrate the expanding view of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in relation to its roles in inflammation. According to the formal classification, the ECS consists of two cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous fatty acid-derived ligands, and a number of enzymes involved in their synthesis and breakdown. However, many endogenous congeners of classical endocannabinoids have now been discovered, together with a set of receptors structurally or functionally related to the cannabinoid receptors. Endocannabinoids per se behave 'promiscuously' with regard to their receptor interactions. It is increasingly recognized how tightly this expanded ECS is intertwined with key processes involved in inflammation. A continuous dynamic exchange of substrates and metabolites exists between ECS and eicosanoid pathways. Endocannabinoids can also be oxygenated by cyclooxygenase and other enzymes to biologically active 'hybrid' structures. Diet is among the main factors determining synthesis and release of endocannabinoids and related mediators. The complexity of what may be called the 'endocannabinoidome' requires approaches that take into account its dynamics and interconnections with other regulatory systems. This endocannabinoidome continues to offer possibilities for prevention and intervention, but multiple target approaches will probably provide the only keys to success.
    Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care. 01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The systemic inflammatory response syndrome can be self-limited or can progress to severe sepsis and septic shock. Despite significant advances in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of septic shock, it is still one of the most frequent and serious problems confronting clinicians in the treatments. And the effects of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) on the sepsis still remain undefined. The present study was aimed to explore the role and mechanism of CB2R in acute sepsis model of mice. Here, we found that mice were more vulnerable for lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced death and inflammation after CB2R deletion (CB2R(-/-)). CB2R agonist, GW405833, could significantly extend the survival rate and decrease serum proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-treated mice. GW405833 dose-dependently inhibits proinflammatory cytokines release in splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages as well as splenocytes proliferation, and these effects were partly abolished in CB2R(-/-) splenocytes but completely abolished in CB2R(-/-) peritoneal macrophages. Further studies showed that GW405833 inhibits LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 and blocks I κ B α degradation and NF- κ B p65 nuclear translocation in macrophages. All data together showed that CB2R provides a protection and is a potential therapeutic target for the sepsis.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:741303. · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sepsis is a complex condition that results from a dysregulated immune system in response to a systemic infection. Current treatments lack effectiveness in reducing the incidence and mortality associated with this disease. The endocannabinoid system offers great promise in managing sepsis pathogenesis due to its unique characteristics. The present study explored the effect of modulating the CB2 receptor pathway in an acute sepsis mouse model. Endotoxemia was induced by intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice and intestinal microcirculation was assessed through intravital microscopy. We found that HU308 (CB2 receptor agonist) reduced the number of adherent leukocytes in submucosal venules but did not restore muscular and mucosal villi FCD in endotoxemic mice. AM630 (CB2 receptor antagonist) maintained the level of adherent leukocytes induced by LPS but further reduced muscular and mucosal villi FCD. URB597 (FAAH inhibitor) and JZL184 (MAGL inhibitor) both reduced the number of adherent leukocytes in submucosal venules but did not restore the mucosal villi FCD. Using various compounds we have shown different mechanisms of activating CB2 receptors to reduce leukocyte endothelial interactions in order to prevent further inflammatory damage during sepsis.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:978678. · 2.42 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014