Article

CB2 Cannabinoid Receptors Contribute to Bacterial Invasion and Mortality in Polymicrobial Sepsis

Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2009; 4(7):e6409. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006409
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sepsis is a major healthcare problem and current estimates suggest that the incidence of sepsis is approximately 750,000 annually. Sepsis is caused by an inability of the immune system to eliminate invading pathogens. It was recently proposed that endogenous mediators produced during sepsis can contribute to the immune dysfunction that is observed in sepsis. Endocannabinoids that are produced excessively in sepsis are potential factors leading to immune dysfunction, because they suppress immune cell function by binding to G-protein-coupled CB(2) receptors on immune cells. Here we examined the role of CB(2) receptors in regulating the host's response to sepsis.
The role of CB(2) receptors was studied by subjecting CB(2) receptor wild-type and knockout mice to bacterial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. We report that CB(2) receptor inactivation by knockout decreases sepsis-induced mortality, and bacterial translocation into the bloodstream of septic animals. Furthermore, CB(2) receptor inactivation decreases kidney and muscle injury, suppresses splenic nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, and diminishes the production of IL-10, IL-6 and MIP-2. Finally, CB(2) receptor deficiency prevents apoptosis in lymphoid organs and augments the number of CD11b(+) and CD19(+) cells during CLP.
Taken together, our results establish for the first time that CB(2) receptors are important contributors to septic immune dysfunction and mortality, indicating that CB(2) receptors may be therapeutically targeted for the benefit of patients suffering from sepsis.

Full-text

Available from: Pal Pacher, Mar 31, 2015
0 Bookmarks
 · 
150 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sepsis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Excessive inflammation is a major cause of organ failure and mortality in sepsis. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, ENTPDase1 (CD39) is a cell surface nucleotide-metabolizing enzyme, which degrades the extracellular purines ATP and ADP, thereby regulating purinergic receptor signaling. Although the role of purinergic receptor signaling in regulating inflammation and sepsis has been addressed previously, the role of CD39 in regulating the host's response to sepsis is unknown. We found that the CD39 mimic apyrase (250 U/kg) decreased and knockout or pharmacologic blockade with sodium polyoxotungstate (5 mg/kg; IC50 ≈ 10 μM) of CD39 increased mortality of mice with polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture. CD39 decreased inflammation, organ damage, immune cell apoptosis, and bacterial load. Use of bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that CD39 expression on myeloid cells decreases inflammation in septic mice. CD39 expression is upregulated during sepsis in mice, as well as in both murine and human macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli. Moreover, E. coli increases CD39 promoter activity in macrophages. Altogether, these data indicate CD39 as an evolutionarily conserved inducible protective pathway during sepsis. We propose CD39 as a novel therapeutic target in the management of sepsis.-Csóka, B., Németh, Z. H., Törő, G., Koscsó, B., Kókai, E., Robson, S. C., Enjyoji, K., Rolandelli, R. H., Erdélyi, K., Pacher, P., Haskó, G. CD39 improves survival in microbial sepsis by attenuating systemic inflammation.
    The FASEB Journal 10/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1096/fj.14-253567 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Infection-induced inflammation, frequently associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is considered a significant contributor to preterm birth. A G-protein coupled receptor CB2, encoded by Cnr2, is expressed in various immune cells and was shown to modulate immune responses. We show here that Cnr2, but not Cnr1, deficient mice are resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven preterm birth and suppression of serum progesterone (P4) levels. After LPS challenge, Cnr2(-/-) mice exhibited increased serum levels of IL-10 with decreased IL-6 levels. These changes were associated with reduced LPS-induced Ptgs2 expression at the maternal-conceptus interface on day 16 of pregnancy. LPS stimulation of Cnr2(-/-) dendritic cells in vitro resulted in increased IL-10 with reduced IL-6 production and correlated with increased cAMP accumulation. Collectively, our results suggest that increased IL-10 production occurring via augmented cAMP accumulation represents a potential mechanism for the resistance of Cnr2(-/-) mice to LPS-induced preterm birth. These results may have clinical relevance since currently there are limited options to prevent preterm birth.
    Endocrinology 07/2014; 155(10):en20141387. DOI:10.1210/en.2014-1387 · 4.72 Impact Factor