HIV-1 Nef-mediated inhibition of T cell migration and its molecular determinants.
ABSTRACT Lymphocyte trafficking is a multistep, intricate process and involves a number of host factors such as integrins and chemokine receptors on lymphocytes, adhesion molecules on endothelial cells, and chemokines present in the local microenvironment. Previous studies have shown that HIV-1 Nef inhibits T cell chemotaxis in response to the physiological ligand SDF-1alpha [( 1) ]. In this study, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the inhibitory mechanisms and to define the molecular determinants of HIV-1 Nef for this phenotype. We showed that HIV-1 Nef inhibited transwell and transendothelial migration of T cells. Specifically, HIV-1 Nef protein impaired T cell chemotaxis toward SDF-1alpha without altering CXCR4 expression. Moreover, we showed that HIV-1 Nef protein down-modulated LFA-1 expression on T lymphocytes and diminished adhesion and polarization of T lymphocytes and as a result, led to decreased migration across the endothelium. Furthermore, we showed that the myristoylation site and DeltaSD domain played important roles in Nef-mediated inhibition of transwell and transendothelial migration and polarization of T lymphocytes; however, different sites or domains were needed for Nef-mediated LFA-1 down-modulation and impaired adhesion of T lymphocyte. Taken together, these results demonstrated that HIV-1 Nef inhibited T lymphocyte migration at multiple steps and suggest that membrane localization and intracellular signaling events likely contribute to the inhibitory effects of Nef on T cell migration and subsequently, the pathobiology of the HIV-1 Nef protein.
Article: Reactivation of latent tuberculosis in cynomolgus macaques infected with SIV is associated with early peripheral T cell depletion and not virus load.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection are at significantly greater risk of reactivation tuberculosis (TB) than HIV-negative individuals with latent TB, even while CD4 T cell numbers are well preserved. Factors underlying high rates of reactivation are poorly understood and investigative tools are limited. We used cynomolgus macaques with latent TB co-infected with SIVmac251 to develop the first animal model of reactivated TB in HIV-infected humans to better explore these factors. All latent animals developed reactivated TB following SIV infection, with a variable time to reactivation (up to 11 months post-SIV). Reactivation was independent of virus load but correlated with depletion of peripheral T cells during acute SIV infection. Animals experiencing reactivation early after SIV infection (<17 weeks) had fewer CD4 T cells in the periphery and airways than animals reactivating in later phases of SIV infection. Co-infected animals had fewer T cells in involved lungs than SIV-negative animals with active TB despite similar T cell numbers in draining lymph nodes. Granulomas from these animals demonstrated histopathologic characteristics consistent with a chronically active disease process. These results suggest initial T cell depletion may strongly influence outcomes of HIV-Mtb co-infection.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(3):e9611. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Sequence- and interactome-based prediction of viral protein hotspots targeting host proteins: a case study for HIV Nef.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Virus proteins alter protein pathways of the host toward the synthesis of viral particles by breaking and making edges via binding to host proteins. In this study, we developed a computational approach to predict viral sequence hotspots for binding to host proteins based on sequences of viral and host proteins and literature-curated virus-host protein interactome data. We use a motif discovery algorithm repeatedly on collections of sequences of viral proteins and immediate binding partners of their host targets and choose only those motifs that are conserved on viral sequences and highly statistically enriched among binding partners of virus protein targeted host proteins. Our results match experimental data on binding sites of Nef to host proteins such as MAPK1, VAV1, LCK, HCK, HLA-A, CD4, FYN, and GNB2L1 with high statistical significance but is a poor predictor of Nef binding sites on highly flexible, hoop-like regions. Predicted hotspots recapture CD8 cell epitopes of HIV Nef highlighting their importance in modulating virus-host interactions. Host proteins potentially targeted or outcompeted by Nef appear crowding the T cell receptor, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Scanning of HIV Nef motifs on multiple alignments of hepatitis C protein NS5A produces results consistent with literature, indicating the potential value of the hotspot discovery in advancing our understanding of virus-host crosstalk.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e20735. · 4.09 Impact Factor