Recent studies indicate that adolescents often experience musculoskeletal pains in two or more body locations. However, previous studies have mainly focused on localized pains, and the determinants of multiple musculoskeletal pains in adolescents are not well known. The present study was set to evaluate the role of psychosocial, mechanical, and metabolic factors in adolescents' musculoskeletal pains in multiple locations. The study population consisted of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort; 15- to 16-year-old adolescents (n=6986), who responded to a mailed questionnaire in 2001. We assessed the associations of emotional and behavioral problems, physical activity, sitting time, sleeping time, overweight and smoking with musculoskeletal pains using multinomial logistic regression. Multiple pains were common, 23% of boys and 40% of girls reported feeling pain in at least three locations over the past 6 months. These pains were not only associated with anxious/depressed symptoms, withdrawn/depressed symptoms, somatic complaints, rule-breaking and aggressive behavior, social problems, thought and attention problems, but also with high physical activity level, long sitting time, short sleeping time and smoking, among both boys and girls. In addition, pain in three to four locations associated with overweight in girls. A high number of psychosocial, mechanical and metabolic factors associated strongly with multiple pains. In conclusion, multiple musculoskeletal pains were strongly associated with psychosocial complaints, but also with mechanical and metabolic factors. Reported musculoskeletal pains in multiple locations in adolescence may have both peripheral (trauma, decreased regenerative ability) and central (sensitivity) causes.
"Sedentary activity had a stronger association to musculoskeletal pain compared to low physical activity, which we found significant in females in the univariate analysis. This is in contrast to Hoftun et al. who found it so in both genders  and to Paananen et al. who found high physical activity to be associated with musculoskeletal pain . In regard to our post hoc results one can argue that both groups are at higher risk, but hypothesize that it is more likely due to mechanical factors, such as injuries, in highly active individuals. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain related functional impairment.
This is a cross-sectional study based on The Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Health Study; a school-based survey responded by 4,881 10th grade students (RR: 83%) in North Norway, in 2003–2005. 10% were indigenous Sami. Musculoskeletal pain was based on reported pain in the head, shoulder/neck, back and/or arm/knee/leg, measured by the number of pain sites. Linear multiple regression was used for the multivariable analyses.
The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was high, and significantly higher in females. In total, 22.4% reported 3–4 pain sites. We found a strong association between musculoskeletal pain sites and psychosocial problems, with a higher explained variance in those reporting pain related functional impairment and in females. There were no major differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in Sami and non-Sami, however the associating factors differed somewhat between the indigenous and non-indigenous group. The final multivariable model, for the total sample, explained 21.2% of the variance of musculoskeletal pain. Anxiety/depression symptoms was the dominant factor associated with musculoskeletal pain followed by negative life events and school-related stress.
Anxiety/depression, negative life events, and school-related stress were the most important factors associated with musculoskeletal pain, especially in those reporting pain related functional impairment. The most important sociocultural aspect is the finding that the indigenous Sami are not worse off.
BMC Public Health 06/2014; 14(1):617. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-617 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"Next, we tried different combinations of continuous and categorical variables. Finally, we observed that the categorization of variables that best represent our data were the dichotomization of externalizing and internalizing problems into problem and normal range
; the trichotomization of physical activity level
; sleeping time
, and sedentary activity level among boys
 on the basis of recommendations or previous studies; and the use of the sedentary activity variable among girls and BMI variable among both genders as continuous variables. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Adolescent’psychosocial problems associate with unhealthy behaviors, but data on co-occurring patterns is sparse. We investigated 1) whether adolescents could be categorized into meaningful subgroups with respect to psychosocial and lifestyle factors, 2) whether the prevalence of physical inactivity, overweight and smoking vary within the subgroups and 3) whether these unhealthy behaviors persist in a two-year follow-up.
The study was based on a subgroup of the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort, which consisted of adolescents who replied to a postal questionnaire at 16 years (n = 6792) and a subgroup of this sample at 18 years (n = 1552). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to establish clusters at 16 years.
Smoking co-existed with emotional and behavioral problems in both genders. Boys with the most inactive lifestyle slept poorly, whereas multiple problems co-occurred among girls. Those with a high body mass index (BMI) separated as groups of their own. Different combinations of adverse lifestyle and emotional and behavioral problems were relatively common in both sexes as only 51% of boys and 67% of girls belonged to the reference cluster with low probability for these findings. Physical inactivity, high BMI and smoking tended to persist over the two-year follow-up.
It seems that lifestyle and psychosocial factors divide adolescents into distinct subgroups in which unhealthy lifestyle patterns remain between the ages of 16 and 18. This may indicate problems in other life areas and expose them to an increased risk of future health problems.
BMC Public Health 06/2014; 14(1):542. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-542 · 2.26 Impact Factor
"To clarify the associated risks of the neck complaints, the angle and duration of neck flexion of those preparers in work need further study. As mentioned earlier, many studies have confirmed the association between the psychological risk factors and MSDs [Heuvel et al., 2005; Murphy et al., 2007; Paananen et al., 2010]. This study indicated that more than 40% of the interviewed preparers reported being under various forms of psychological stress, a significant risk factor for the discomfort in many body parts. "
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