Article

Effect of a history of major depressive disorder on smoking-induced dopamine release.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.
Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 8.93). 07/2009; 66(9):898-901. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.06.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dopamine (DA) system dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). We sought to determine if cigarette smokers with a history of MDD and current mild depressive symptoms have abnormal smoking-induced DA release (measured indirectly as change in (11)C-raclopride binding potential [BP(ND)]).
Fifty-six cigarette smokers either with (n = 10) or without (n = 46) a history of MDD (MDD+ and MDD-, respectively) underwent bolus-plus-continuous-infusion (11)C-raclopride positron emission tomography, during which they smoked a regular cigarette. Presmoking to postsmoking changes in (11)C-raclopride BP(ND) were compared between groups. Also, correlations were determined between change in BP(ND) and depression, anxiety, and withdrawal rating scale scores for the MDD+ group.
The MDD+ group had a significantly greater reduction in (11)C-raclopride BP(ND) (-16.3%) than the MDD- group (-8.4%) (analysis of covariance [ANCOVA], p = .03). Significant negative correlations were found between depression/anxiety and change in (11)C-raclopride BP(ND) (r = -.77, p < .01 and r = -.74, p = .01, respectively).
MDD+ smokers have greater smoking-induced DA release than MDD- smokers, and higher depression/anxiety levels are associated with greater smoking-induced DA release. These findings support the theory that MDD+ smokers have DA system dysfunction, including heightened smoking-induced DA release.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
84 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine a potential association between biologically confirmed secondhand smoke exposure and symptoms of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) (DSM-IV) major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder using a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the United States. Continental United States. Children and adolescents aged 8 to 15 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2004. Measurement of serum cotinine level to assess secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers. The DSM-IV symptoms were derived from selected modules of the National Institute of Mental Health's Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV, a structured diagnostic interview administered by trained lay interviewers. Among nonsmokers, serum cotinine level was positively associated with symptoms of DSM-IV major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder after adjusting for survey design, age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty, migraine, asthma, hay fever, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and allostatic load. Associations with serum cotinine level were more apparent for boys and for participants of non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Our results are consistent with a growing body of research documenting an association between secondhand smoke exposure and mental health outcomes. Future research is warranted to establish the biological or psychological mechanisms of association.
    JAMA Pediatrics 04/2011; 165(4):332-8. · 4.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression and smoking are common comorbid conditions among adults with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to determine the independent effects of depression on clinical pain and opioid use among patients with chronic pain according to smoking status. A retrospective design was used to assess baseline levels of depression, clinical pain, opioid dose (calculated as morphine equivalents), and smoking status in a consecutive series of patients admitted to a 3-week outpatient pain treatment program from September 2003 through February 2007. Depression was assessed using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and clinical pain was assessed using the pain severity subscale of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory. The study cohort (n=1241) included 313 current smokers, 294 former smokers, and 634 never smokers. Baseline depression (P=.001) and clinical pain (P=.001) were greater among current smokers compared to former and never smokers, and the daily morphine equivalent dose was greater among smokers compared to never smokers (P=.005). In multivariate linear regression analyses, baseline pain severity was independently associated with greater levels of depression, but not with smoking status. However, status as a current smoker was independently associated with greater opioid use (by 27mg/d), independent of depression scores. The relationship between depression, smoking status, opioid use, and chronic pain is complex, and both depression and smoking status may be potentially important considerations in the treatment of patients with chronic pain who utilize opioids. This study found that pain severity was associated with greater depression but not smoking; however, smoking was associated with greater opioid use, independent of depression.
    Pain 01/2011; 152(1):223-9. · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The radiotracer [(11)C]PHNO may have advantages over other dopamine (DA) D2/D3 receptor ligands because, as an agonist, it measures high-affinity, functionally active D2/D3 receptors, whereas the traditionally used radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride measures both high- and low-affinity receptors. Our aim was to take advantage of the strength of [(11)C]PHNO for measuring the small DA signal induced by nicotine, which has been difficult to measure in preclinical and clinical neuroimaging studies. Nicotine- and amphetamine-induced DA release in non-human primates was measured with [(11)C]PHNO and [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Seven adult rhesus monkeys were imaged on a FOCUS 220 PET scanner after injection of a bolus of [(11)C]PHNO or [(11)C]raclopride in three conditions: baseline; preinjection of nicotine (0.1 mg/kg bolus+0.08 mg/kg infusion over 30 min); preinjection of amphetamine (0.4 mg/kg, 5 min before radiotracer injection). DA release was measured as change in binding potential (BPND). Nicotine significantly decreased BPND in the caudate (7±8%), the nucleus accumbens (10±7%), and in the globus pallidus (13±15%) measured with [(11)C]PHNO, but did not significantly decrease BPND in the putamen or the substantia nigra or in any region when measured with [(11)C]raclopride. Amphetamine significantly reduced BPND in all regions with both radiotracers. In the striatum, larger amphetamine-induced changes were detected with [(11)C]PHNO compared with [(11)C]raclopride (52-64% vs 33-35%, respectively). We confirmed that [(11)C]PHNO is more sensitive than [(11)C]raclopride to nicotine- and amphetamine-induced DA release. [(11)C]PHNO PET may be more sensitive to measuring tobacco smoking-induced DA release in human tobacco smokers.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 13 November 2013; doi:10.1038/npp.2013.286.
    Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 10/2013; · 8.68 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
26 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014