The sensitivity of auditory-motor representations to subtle changes in auditory feedback while singing.
ABSTRACT Singing requires accurate control of the fundamental frequency (F0) of the voice. This study examined trained singers' and untrained singers' (nonsingers') sensitivity to subtle manipulations in auditory feedback and the subsequent effect on the mapping between F0 feedback and vocal control. Participants produced the consonant-vowel /ta/ while receiving auditory feedback that was shifted up and down in frequency. Results showed that singers and nonsingers compensated to a similar degree when presented with frequency-altered feedback (FAF); however, singers' F0 values were consistently closer to the intended pitch target. Moreover, singers initiated their compensatory responses when auditory feedback was shifted up or down 6 cents or more, compared to nonsingers who began compensating when feedback was shifted up 26 cents and down 22 cents. Additionally, examination of the first 50 ms of vocalization indicated that participants commenced subsequent vocal utterances, during FAF, near the F0 value on previous shift trials. Interestingly, nonsingers commenced F0 productions below the pitch target and increased their F0 until they matched the note. Thus, singers and nonsingers rely on an internal model to regulate voice F0, but singers' models appear to be more sensitive in response to subtle discrepancies in auditory feedback.
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ABSTRACT: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with PET during rudimentary singing of a single pitch and vowel, contrasted to passive listening to complex tones. CBF increases in cortical areas related to motor control were seen in the supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate cortex, precentral gyri, anterior insula (and the adjacent inner face of the precentral operculum) and cerebellum, replicating most previously seen during speech. Increases in auditory cortex were seen within right Heschl's gyrus, and in the posterior superior temporal plane (and the immediately overlying parietal cortex). Since cortex near right Heschl's has been linked to complex pitch perception, its asymmetric activation here may be related to analyzing the fundamental frequency of one's own voice for feedback-guided modulation.Neuroreport 01/2000; 10(18):3979-84. · 1.66 Impact Factor