Response to noise from modern wind farms in The Netherlands

Halmstad University and University of Gothenburg, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (Impact Factor: 1.5). 09/2009; 126(2):634-43. DOI: 10.1121/1.3160293
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The increasing number and size of wind farms call for more data on human response to wind turbine noise, so that a generalized dose-response relationship can be modeled and possible adverse health effects avoided. This paper reports the results of a 2007 field study in The Netherlands with 725 respondents. A dose-response relationship between calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels and reported perception and annoyance was found. Wind turbine noise was more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable levels, possibly due to specific sound properties such as a "swishing" quality, temporal variability, and lack of nighttime abatement. High turbine visibility enhances negative response, and having wind turbines visible from the dwelling significantly increased the risk of annoyance. Annoyance was strongly correlated with a negative attitude toward the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. The study further demonstrates that people who benefit economically from wind turbines have a significantly decreased risk of annoyance, despite exposure to similar sound levels. Response to wind turbine noise was similar to that found in Sweden so the dose-response relationship should be generalizable.

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Available from: Eja Pedersen, Dec 17, 2013
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    • "One article was excluded because it explored the effects of road traffic noise using data from a study included in the review (Pedersen et al., 2010) and another two because they did not distinguish subjects by distance from WTGs or SPLs (Harry, 2007; Morris, 2012). Two articles (Nissenbaum et al., 2011; Pedersen et al., 2009) were excluded because more complete versions of their reports were included in the review. Thus eight studies (Bakker et al., 2012; Krogh et al., 2011; Magari et al., 2014; Nissenbaum et al., 2012; Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska et al., 2014; Pedersen and Persson Waye, 2004, 2007; Shepherd et al., 2011) with a total of 2433 participants were included in the review. "
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    ABSTRACT: Noise generated by wind turbines has been reported to affect sleep and quality of life (QOL), but the relationship is unclear. Our objective was to explore the association between wind turbine noise, sleep disturbance and quality of life, using data from published observational studies. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Google Scholar databases. No language restrictions were imposed. Hand searches of bibliography of retrieved full texts were also conducted. The reporting quality of included studies was assessed using the STROBE guidelines. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of studies, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data. We included eight studies with a total of 2433 participants. All studies were cross-sectional, and the overall reporting quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of six studies (n=2364) revealed that the odds of being annoyed is significantly increased by wind turbine noise (OR: 4.08; 95% CI: 2.37 to 7.04; p<0.00001). The odds of sleep disturbance was also significantly increased with greater exposure to wind turbine noise (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.98 to 4.37; p<0.00001). Four studies reported that wind turbine noise significantly interfered with QOL. Further, visual perception of wind turbine generators was associated with greater frequency of reported negative health effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence that exposure to wind turbine noise is associated with increased odds of annoyance and sleep problems. Individual attitudes could influence the type of response to noise from wind turbines. Experimental and observational studies investigating the relationship between wind turbine noise and health are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Environment international 09/2015; 82:1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2015.04.014 · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Finally, evidence suggests ancillary economic and social factors are associated with interpretations of or reactions to wind turbine sound. Respondents that economically benefitted from wind turbine rents reported significantly less annoyance (Pedersen et al., 2009). Moreover, in another study, despite both noticing the sound more frequently and experiencing augmented sound levels , respondents that economically benefitted from nearby wind turbines reported significantly less annoyance compared to respondents that did not (Bakker et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Community-based wind energy projects, with their small-scale, yet sizeable presence, provide a valuable opportunity to understand how individuals make sense of changes to their communities and to the surrounding landscape. Here, we examine the results of a 2013 mail survey of individuals residing in the vicinity of a 2 MW wind turbine that is located on the edge of the historic coastal town of Lewes, Delaware in the United States, and adjacent to Delaware Bay and the Great Marsh Preserve. The wind turbine, which was constructed in 2010, primarily serves the University of Delaware's coastal campus, and to a lesser extent the town of Lewes. Seventy-eight percent hold positive or very positive attitudes toward the wind turbine, with only 10% having negative or very negative attitudes, and 82% like the look of the wind turbine. Socially constructed aspects find more resonance than physical ones (e.g., attractiveness) in explaining this latter finding, with the wind turbine being reflective of a transformation to a clean energy future for those residents who like the way the turbine looks. On the other hand, those objecting to its look, find the turbine does not fit the landscape. Policy implications of these findings and others related to wind turbine sound are considered, and recommendations for better understanding of proposed developments from the vantage point of the affected communities, including how a community views itself and its surrounding landscape, are made.
    Land Use Policy 07/2015; 46. DOI:10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.02.015 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    • "Negative evaluation of wind tur - bines ( q ) Visual attitude towards wind turbines for subjects who could see the wind turbines and to a lower degree for subjects who could not see the wind turbines ( q ) Increased vertical visual angel is correlated to wind turbine noise and annoy - ance ( q ) Pedersen et al . 2009Bakker et al . 2012 [ 36 , 40 , 41 ] . 725 Yes Highly exposed subjects more annoyed compared to less exposed subjects . Noise sensitive subjects ( q ) Visible wind turbines ( q ) Economic benefit ( Q ) Build - up area opposed to rural area without main road ( q ) Rural area with main road ( Q ) Pedersen et al . 2004 [ 38 , 41 , 47 ] . 34"
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    ABSTRACT: Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise. This review was conducted systematically with the purpose of identifying any reported associations between wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects. A search of the scientific literature concerning the health-related effects of wind turbine noise was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and various other Internet sources. All studies investigating suspected health-related outcomes associated with wind turbine noise exposure were included. Wind turbines emit noise, including low-frequency noise, which decreases incrementally with increases in distance from the wind turbines. Likewise, evidence of a dose-response relationship between wind turbine noise linked to noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and possibly even psychological distress was present in the literature. Currently, there is no further existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine noise exposure and adverse health effects. Only articles published in English, German or Scandinavian languages were reviewed. Exposure to wind turbines does seem to increase the risk of annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship. There appears, though, to be a tolerable level of around LAeq of 35 dB. Of the many other claimed health effects of wind turbine noise exposure reported in the literature, however, no conclusive evidence could be found. Future studies should focus on investigations aimed at objectively demonstrating whether or not measureable health-related outcomes can be proven to fluctuate depending on exposure to wind turbines.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114183. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114183 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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