Article

A critical analysis of the tumour immunosurveillance controversy for 3-MCA-induced sarcomas

Sheila and David Fuentes Program in Cancer Biology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.
British Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.82). 09/2009; 101(3):381-6. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605198
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The cancer immunoediting hypothesis has gained significant footing over the past decade as a result of work performed using sarcomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MCA) in mice. Despite the progress made by several groups in establishing evidence for the three phases of immunoediting (elimination, equilibrium and escape), there continues to be active controversy on the nature of interaction between spontaneously formed tumour cells and the immune system during the early phases of tumourigenesis. At the root of this controversy is conflicting and unresolved evidence spanning back to the 1970s regarding the incidence and frequency of 3-MCA-induced sarcomas in immunocompetent mice as compared to immunodeficient mice. In this mini review we provide a critical analysis of both sides of this controversy.

Full-text

Available from: Taylor H Schreiber, Apr 27, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
144 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Perforin (PFN) is the key pore-forming molecule in the cytotoxic granules of immune killer cells. Expressed only in killer cells, PFN is the rate-limiting molecule for cytotoxic function, delivering the death-inducing granule serine proteases (granzymes) into target cells marked for immune elimination. In this chapter we describe our current understanding of how PFN accomplishes this task. We discuss where PFN is expressed and how its expression is regulated, the biogenesis and storage of PFN in killer cells and how they are protected from potential damage, how it is released, how it delivers Granzymes into target cells and the consequences of PFN deficiency.
    Sub-cellular biochemistry 01/2014; 80:197-220. DOI:10.1007/978-94-017-8881-6_10
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) are crucial in mediating immune homeostasis and promoting the establishment and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. However, in the context of cancer their role is more complex, and they are thought to contribute to the progress of many tumours. As cancer cells express both self- and tumour-associated antigens, T(regs) are key to dampening effector cell responses, and therefore represent one of the main obstacles to effective anti-tumour responses. Suppression mechanisms employed by T(regs) are thought to contribute significantly to the failure of current therapies that rely on induction or potentiation of anti-tumour responses. This review will focus on the current evidence supporting the central role of T(regs) in establishing tumour-specific tolerance and promoting cancer escape. We outline the mechanisms underlying their suppressive function and discuss the potential routes of T(regs) accumulation within the tumour, including enhanced recruitment, in-situ or local proliferation, and de-novo differentiation. In addition, we review some of the cancer treatment strategies that act, at least in part, to eliminate or interfere with the function of T(regs) . The role of T(regs) is being recognized increasingly in cancer, and controlling the function of these suppressive cells in the tumour microenvironment without compromising peripheral tolerance represents a significant challenge for cancer therapies.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 01/2013; 171(1):36-45. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2012.04657.x · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-27 (IL-27) is a pleiotropic cytokine but its immunosuppressive effects predominate during many in vivo immunological challenges. Despite this, evidence from tumor cell line transfer models suggested that IL-27 could promote immune responses in the tumor context. However, the role of IL-27 in immunity against tumors that develop in situ and in tumor immunosurveillance remain undefined. In this study, we demonstrate that tumor development and growth are accelerated in IL-27 receptor α (Il27ra)-deficient mice. Enhanced tumor growth in both carcinogen-induced fibrosarcoma and oncogene-driven mammary carcinoma was associated with decreased interferon-γ production by CD4 and CD8 T cells and increased numbers of regulatory T-cells (Treg). This is the first study to show that IL-27 promotes protective immune responses against endogenous tumors, which is critical as the basis for future development of an IL-27 based therapeutic agent.
    PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e57469. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057469 · 3.53 Impact Factor