Phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling in the vertebrate retina.
ABSTRACT The phosphoinositide (PI) cycle, discovered over 50 years ago by Mabel and Lowell Hokin, describes a series of biochemical reactions that occur on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane of cells in response to receptor activation by extracellular stimuli. Studies from our laboratory have shown that the retina and rod outer segments (ROSs) have active PI metabolism. Biochemical studies revealed that the ROSs contain the enzymes necessary for phosphorylation of phosphoinositides. We showed that light stimulates various components of the PI cycle in the vertebrate ROS, including diacylglycerol kinase, PI synthetase, phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). This article describes recent studies on the PI3K-generated PI lipid second messengers in the control and regulation of PI-binding proteins in the vertebrate retina.
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ABSTRACT: 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) is a major lipid peroxidation product in the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3K) pathways affect the responses of cultured human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to 4-HNE. Cultured ARPE-19 cells were treated with different concentrations of 4-HNE and a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The transcriptional activity of Nrf2 was measured by dual luciferase assay after transient transfection with reporter plasmids. The mRNA level of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Formation of HNE adduct on heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) was measured by immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses. Treatment with 4-HNE increased Nrf2 activity and GSH synthesis in a dose-dependent manner in cultured RPE cells. The modulatory subunit of GCL was upregulated by 4-HNE. Antioxidant responses were largely abolished by pretreatment with LY294002. The modification of Hsc70 by 4-HNE was increased when PI3K was inhibited. The Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response protects against 4-HNE toxicity, and this protective mechanism is dependent on the functions of the PI3K pathway.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 10/2008; 50(2):936-42. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obese human subjects have increased protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) activity in adipose tissue that can dephosphorylate and inactivate the insulin receptor kinase. To extend these findings to skeletal muscle, we measured PTPase activity in the skeletal muscle particulate fraction and cytosol from a series of lean controls, insulin-resistant obese (body mass index > 30) nondiabetic subjects, and obese individuals with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. PTPase activities in subcellular fractions from the nondiabetic obese subjects were increased to 140-170% of the level in lean controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, PTPase activity in both fractions from the obese subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes was significantly decreased to 39% of the level in controls (P < 0.05). By immunoblot analysis, leukocyte antigen related (LAR) and protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B had the greatest increase (threefold) in the particulate fraction from obese, nondiabetic subjects, and immunodepletion of this fraction using an affinity-purified antibody directed at the cytoplasmic domain of leukocyte antigen related normalized the PTPase activity when compared to the activity from control subjects. These findings provide further support for negative regulation of insulin action by specific PTPases in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in human obesity, while other regulatory mechanisms may be operative in the diabetic state.Journal of Clinical Investigation 08/1997; 100(2):449-58. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review provides a model for the role of oxidative stress in the etiology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Epidemiological studies of diet, environmental and behavioral risk factors suggest that oxidative stress is a contributing factor of AMD. Pathological studies indicate that damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an early event in AMD. In vitro studies show that oxidant treated RPE cells undergo apoptosis, a possible mechanism by which RPE cells are lost during early phase of AMD. The main target of oxidative injury seems to be mitochondria, an organelle known to accumulate genomic damages in other postmitotic tissues during aging. The thiol antioxidant GSH and its amino acid precursors protect RPE cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis. Similar protection occurs with dietary enzyme inducers which increase GSH synthesis. These results indicate that therapeutic or nutritional intervention to enhance the GSH antioxidant capacity of RPE may provide an effective way to prevent or treat AMD.Progress in Retinal and Eye Research 04/2000; 19(2):205-21. · 9.44 Impact Factor