Irinotecan and Temozolomide for Ewing Sarcoma: The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Experience

Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.39). 12/2009; 53(6):1029-34. DOI: 10.1002/pbc.22206
Source: PubMed


The prognosis for recurrent/progressive Ewing sarcoma (ES) remains poor. Pre-clinical, adult phase I and II trials have demonstrated the combination of irinotecan and temozolomide to have schedule-dependent synergy and significant antitumor activity. A pediatric phase I trial has shown this regimen to be safe and active in advanced ES.
We conducted a retrospective chart review to identify patients with recurrent/progressive ES treated with irinotecan [20 mg/m(2)/day x 5(x2)] and temozolomide (100 mg/m(2)/day x 5) in our institution. The best response achieved, time to progression (TTP), and associated toxicities were recorded.
Twenty patients received a total of 154 cycles of therapy. Of 19 evaluable patients, there were 5 complete and 7 partial responses (a 63% overall objective response). Median TTP for 20 evaluable patients with recurrent/progressive ES was 8.3 months; for the subset of 14 patients with recurrent ES, it was 16.2 months. Median TTP was better for patients who sustained a 2-year first remission than for those who relapsed < 24 months from diagnosis and for patients with primary localized vs. metastatic disease. Significant toxicities included grade 3 diarrhea (7 cycles), grade 3 colitis (1 cycle), grade 3 pneumonitis in one patient receiving concurrent whole-lung RT, grade 3-4 neutropenia (19 cycles), and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (16 cycles).
Irinotecan and temozolomide is a well-tolerated and active regimen for recurrent/progressive ES. Prospective trials are necessary to define the role of this regimen in newly diagnosed ES.

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    • "Temozolomide has relatively low incidence of toxicity and its dose limiting toxicity is myelosuppression, mainly neutropenia and thrombocytopenia [20]. The most commonly demonstrated toxicities of the combination in the reported studies were diarrhea and neutropenia [6] [7] [22]. When the 346 courses of the three studies were collectively evaluated, 26 courses (7.5%) were associated with grade 3–4 diarrhea. "
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    ABSTRACT: Long-term survival in relapsed Ewing sarcoma (ES) is less than 20%. Encouraging results have been reported with irinotecan and temozolomide combinations (IRN/TMZ). We aimed to share our experience and compare it with previously published studies using this combination to treat relapsed ES. We retrospectively evaluated 20 patients treated with a combination of IRN (20 mg/m(2)/d × 5 for 2 weeks) and temozolomide (100 mg/m(2)/d × 5). Patients received a total of 97 courses. An objective response was achieved in 11 patients (55%) and maintained for a median of 12 months. Five patients were alive for a median of 12 months. Median time to progression was 5.5 (2-57) months. After the IRN/TMZ treatment, 1-year overall and event-free survival rates were 54.2% and 44.4%, respectively. Grade 3-4 toxicities included diarrhea (9.2%), neutropenia (11.3%), and thrombocytopenia (6.2%). Three retrospective trials were found in our literature review, which used an IRN/TMZ combination to treat ES. There was one other study which retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of vincristine, IRN, and TMZ combination in relapsed ES. A total of 81 patients were treated with IRN/TMZ in four studies including ours. The objective response rate was 55.1%, and median time to progression ranged from 5.5 to 8.3 months. Twenty-six (7.5%) of a total of 346 courses were associated with grade 3-4 diarrhea. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were reported in 9.2% and 7.2% of the courses, respectively. Results showed that an IRN/TMZ combination is effective and tolerable in patients with relapsed ES.
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 09/2014; 32(1). DOI:10.3109/08880018.2014.954070 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    • "Irinotecan is a topoisomerase I inhibitor that generates DNA damage in replicating cells [18], and triggers cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence [19]. Single agent and various combinations of irinotecan have been used as salvage therapies for a variety of pediatric soft tissue sarcomas with responses varying from 15 to 50% [20,21,22,23]. The pharmacokinetics of topoisomerase inhibitors are highly variable, thus not reliable and not helpful for defining the optimal schedule. "
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    ABSTRACT: mTOR inhibitors are emerging as important anti-neoplastic agents with a wide range of clinical applications. The topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan is a potent DNA damaging drug, with a broad spectrum of anticancer activities. mTOR appears to enhance cancer cell survival following DNA damage, thus the inhibition of mTOR after irinotecan could theoretically show synergistic activities in patients. Both mTOR inhibitors and irinotecan have been used as single agents in soft tissue sarcomas with limited efficacy. We completed a phase I trial of the combination of the mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, and irinotecan in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. Seventeen patients were recruited. The Phase II recommended dose is 20 mg of temsirolimus and 80 mg/m2 of irinotecan administered on weekly basis for three out of four weeks. Most frequently encountered toxicities include cytopenias, fatigue, and gastrointestinal toxicities. Two patients (one with leiomyosarcoma and one with high grade undifferentiated sarcoma) had stable disease for more than 12 months.
    Cancers 06/2013; 5(2):418-29. DOI:10.3390/cancers5020418
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    • "It may have more benefit when used as 2nd line, and its use as 3rd-line therapy should be limited. Confirmation of our preliminary data is required with larger adult series; however, patients with relapsed EWS should perhaps be offered alternative therapeutic opportunities such as temozolomide plus irinotecan [20, 21] or clinical trials exploiting novel targets. "
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Background. The combination of topotecan and cyclophosphamide (TC) has activity in pediatric patients with recurrent sarcoma, especially Ewing's sarcoma (EWS). We sought to determine the toxicity of and response to TC in adults with recurrent sarcoma. Patients and Methods. Adults treated with TC from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed who received T = topotecan at 0.75 mg/m(2)/day (days 1-5) and C = cyclophosphamide at 250 mg/m(2)/day (days 1-5) every 21 days. Results. Fifteen patients, median age 31 years (range 17.5-56) had nonpleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS, n = 6), EWS, n = 5, synovial sarcoma (SS, n = 2) leiomyosarcoma (LMS, n = 1), and desmoplastic small round cell tumour (DSRCT, n = 1). Median time to progression was 2.5 months (range 1.6-13.0). Partial responses were seen in 2/6 RMS and 1/2 SS. Stable disease was seen in 2/5 EWS, 1/2 SS and 1 DSRCT. The most common reason for stopping treatment was progressive disease 12/15, (80%). Hematologic toxicity was common; 7 (47%) patients required blood product transfusion, 5 (33%) patients had fever/neutropenia. At median follow-up time of 7.7 months, all but 1 patient had died of disease. Conclusion: TC combination is tolerable but has only modest activity in adults with recurrent sarcoma. Other regimens deserve exploration for this high-risk group of patients.
    Sarcoma 07/2012; 2012:749067. DOI:10.1155/2012/749067
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