Backbone NMR assignments of DFP-inhibited mature subtilisin E.
Department of Biochemistry, Robert-Wood-Johnson Medical School, 675 Hoes Ln, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.Biomolecular NMR Assignments (impact factor: 0.72). 01/2009; 2(2):131-3. DOI:10.1007/s12104-008-9103-y
ABSTRACT Here we report the backbone chemical shifts of the DFP-inhibited mature subtilisin E, which was uniformly labeled by (13)C, (15)N with a supplement of excess calcium.
Article: Sensitivity of secondary structure propensities to sequence differences between alpha- and gamma-synuclein: implications for fibrillation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The synucleins are a family of intrinsically disordered proteins involved in various human diseases. alpha-Synuclein has been extensively characterized due to its role in Parkinson's disease where it forms intracellular aggregates, while gamma-synuclein is overexpressed in a majority of late-stage breast cancers. Despite fairly strong sequence similarity between the amyloid-forming regions of alpha- and gamma-synuclein, gamma-synuclein has only a weak propensity to form amyloid fibrils. We hypothesize that the different fibrillation tendencies of alpha- and gamma-synuclein may be related to differences in structural propensities. Here we have measured chemical shifts for gamma-synuclein and compared them to previously published shifts for alpha-synuclein. In order to facilitate direct comparison, we have implemented a simple new technique for re-referencing chemical shifts that we have found to be highly effective for both disordered and folded proteins. In addition, we have developed a new method that combines different chemical shifts into a single residue-specific secondary structure propensity (SSP) score. We observe significant differences between alpha- and gamma-synuclein secondary structure propensities. Most interestingly, gamma-synuclein has an increased alpha-helical propensity in the amyloid-forming region that is critical for alpha-synuclein fibrillation, suggesting that increased structural stability in this region may protect against gamma-synuclein aggregation. This comparison of residue-specific secondary structure propensities between intrinsically disordered homologs highlights the sensitivity of transient structure to sequence changes, which we suggest may have been exploited as an evolutionary mechanism for fast modulation of protein structure and, hence, function.Protein Science 01/2007; 15(12):2795-804. · 2.80 Impact Factor
Article: Catalysis of a protein folding reaction: mechanistic implications of the 2.0 A structure of the subtilisin-prodomain complex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Biosynthesis of subtilisin is dependent on a 77 amino acid, N-terminal prodomain, which is autocatalytically processed to create the mature form of the enzyme [Ikemura, H., Takagi, H., & Inouye, M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 7859-7864]. In order to better understand the role of the prodomain in subtilisin folding, we have determined the structure of the processed complex between the prodomain and subtilisin Sbt-70, a mutant engineered for facilitated folding. The prodomain is largely unstructured by itself but folds into a compact structure with a four-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and two three-turn alpha-helices when complexed with subtilisin. The Ka of the complex is 2 x 10(8) M-1 at 25 degrees C. The prodomain binds on subtilisin's two parallel surface alpha-helices and supplies caps to the N-termini of the two helices. The C-terminal strand of the prodomain binds in the subtilisin substrate binding cleft. While Sbt-70 is capable of independent folding, the prodomain accelerates the process by a factor of > 10(7) M-1 of prodomain in 30 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, at 25 degrees C. X-ray structures of the mutant subtilisin folded in vitro either with or without the prodomain are compared and show that the identical folded state is achieved in either case. A model of the folding reaction of Sbt-70 and the prodomain is described as the following equilibria: P + Su<-->Pf--SI<-->Pf--Sf, where Su and P are Sbt-70 and prodomain, respectively, which are largely unstructured at the start of the reaction, Pf--SI is a collision complex of a partially folded Sbt-70 and folded prodomain, and Pf--Sf is the complex of folded Sbt-70 and prodomain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Biochemistry 08/1995; 34(32):10310-8. · 3.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a previous paper (Ikemura, H., Takagi, H., and Inouye, M. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 7859-7864), we demonstrated that the pro-sequence consisting of 77 amino acid residues at the amino terminus of subtilisin is essential for the production of active subtilisin. When the aggregates of pro-subtilisin produced in Escherichia coli were solubilized in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride and dialyzed against 200 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.1 or 6.2), pro-subtilisin was efficiently processed to active subtilisin. When more than 14 residues were removed from the amino terminus of the pro-sequence, active subtilisin was no longer produced as in the in vivo experiments. Similarly, active subtilisin would not renature under the same conditions once solubilized in guanidine hydrochloride. When the aspartic acid residue at the active site (Asp32) was altered to asparagine, processing of mutant pro-subtilisin was not observed even in the presence of wild-type pro-subtilisin. Inhibitors such as phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride or Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor did not block the processing of wild-type pro-subtilisin. These facts indicate that processing or pro-subtilisin is carried out by an intramolecular, self-processing mechanism. When the sample was dialyzed against 20 mM sodium phosphate (pH 6.2), no active subtilisin was found, suggesting that the highly charged nature of the pro-sequence plays an important role in the process of refolding of denatured pro-subtilisin.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/1988; 263(26):12959-63. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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