To evaluate the safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity of dacetuzumab in patients with refractory or recurrent B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
In this open-label, dose-escalation phase I study, dacetuzumab was administered to six cohorts of adult patients. In the first cohort, patients received 2 mg/kg weekly for 4 weeks; in all other cohorts, an intrapatient dose-escalation schedule was used with increasing doses up to a maximum of 8 mg/kg. Patients with clinical benefit after one cycle of dacetuzumab were eligible for a second cycle.
In the 50 patients who received dacetuzumab, no dose dependence of adverse events (AEs) was observed. The most common AEs in >or= 20% of patients were fatigue, pyrexia, and headache; most were grade 1 or 2. Noninfectious inflammatory eye disorders occurred in 12% of patients. AEs grade >or= 3 occurred in 30% of patients and included disease progression, anemia, pleural effusion, and thrombocytopenia. Most laboratory abnormalities were grade 1 or 2; transient elevated hepatic aminotransferases occurred in 52% of patients. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity: grade 3 conjunctivitis and transient vision loss in cohort (1), and grade 3 ALT elevation in cohort IV. The MTD of dacetuzumab was not established at the dose levels tested. Six objective responses were reported (one complete response, five partial responses). Tumor size decreased in approximately one third of patients.
Dacetuzumab monotherapy was well tolerated in patients with NHL in doses up to 8 mg/kg/wk. Preliminary response data are encouraging and support additional studies of dacetuzumab in this patient population.
"Previous studies have also reported inflammatory eye disorders, elevation of hepatic transaminases, and symptoms of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) with dacetuzumab [10,14]. These events were observed in our study as well, generally within 2 weeks of starting study drug and were for the most part Grade 1 or 2 (Table 4). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with DLBCL who are ineligible for or have relapsed after aggressive salvage chemotherapy have a poor prognosis. CD40 is expressed on multiple B-cell neoplasms including DLBCL and is a potential target for immunotherapy. Dacetuzumab (SGN-40), a non-blocking, partial agonist, humanized IgG1, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, has previously demonstrated anti-lymphoma activity in a phase I study.
A phase II study was undertaken to evaluate the rate and duration of objective responses and safety of single-agent dacetuzumab in relapsed DLBCL. Forty-six adult patients with relapsed/refractory DLBCL received up to 12 cycles of intravenous dacetuzumab using intrapatient dose-escalation to a target dose of 8 mg/kg/week in an initial 5-week cycle, followed by 4-week cycles of 8 mg/kg/week. Study endpoints included rate and duration of objective responses, safety, survival, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and exploratory correlative studies.
Overall response rate was 9% and disease control rate (complete remission + partial remission + stable disease) was 37%. Common non-hematologic adverse events (AEs) included fatigue, headache, chills, fever, and nausea. The most frequent Grade 3–4 non-hematologic AE was deep venous thrombosis (3 patients). Grade 3–4 lymphopenia (41%), neutropenia (13%), or thrombocytopenia (19%) occurred without associated infection or bleeding. Reversible ocular events, including conjunctivitis and ocular hyperemia, occurred in 8 patients (17%). Patient-specific factors, including Fc-gamma-RIIIa polymorphism, did not appear to correlate with antitumor activity.
Single-agent dacetuzumab has modest activity and manageable toxicity in unselected patients with relapsed DLBCL. Combination regimens and robust methods of patient selection may be necessary for further development.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00435916.
"Together, these data support the investigation of agents targeting CD40 as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy in patients with haematological malignancies. The biological significance of CD40 has led to the development of CD40-directed therapies that range in activity from agonists to antagonists (Schoenberger et al, 1998; Advani et al, 2009; Lewis et al, 2011). Lucatumumab is a fully human antagonistic anti-CD40 mAb. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advancements in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), patients continue to relapse and thus a need for new targeted therapies remains. The CD40 receptor is highly expressed on neoplastic B cells and activation leads to enhanced proliferation and survival. Lucatumumab (HCD122) is a fully human antagonistic CD40 monoclonal antibody. A phase IA/II study was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and activity of lucatumumab in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma. Determination of the MTD was the primary objective of the phase IA dose escalation portion and clinical response was the primary objective of the phase II dose expansion portion. Patients received escalating doses of lucatumumab administered intravenously once weekly for 4 weeks of an 8-week cycle. MTD was determined at 4 mg/kg of lucatumumab. A total of 111 patients with NHL (n = 74) and HL (n = 37) were enrolled. Responses were observed across various lymphoma subtypes. The overall response rate by computed tomography among patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MZL/MALT) was 33·3% and 42·9%, respectively. Lucatumumab demonstrates modest activity in relapsed/refractory patients with advanced lymphoma, suggesting that targeting of CD40 warrants further investigation.
British Journal of Haematology 11/2013; 164(2). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12630 · 4.71 Impact Factor
"Dacetuzumab, SGN-40, is a humanized IgG1 anti-CD40 mAb that has shown the ability to induce apoptosis and mediate ADCC in vitro (Law et al, 2005). Early phase trials have reported tolerability and efficacy in CLL and relapsed/ refractory NHL (Advani et al, 2009). Additional studies are investigating dacetuzumab in combination with chemotherapeutic agents. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukaemia is the single most common childhood malignancy. With modern treatment regimens, survival in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) approaches 90%. Only about 70% of children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) achieve long term survival. Patients who relapse have a dismal prognosis. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to improve treatment outcomes in newly-diagnosed patients with a poor prognosis and for patients with relapsed/refractory disease that have limited treatment options. One promising approach in treating haematological malignancies has been the use of monoclonal antibodies to target cell surface antigens expressed on malignant cells. Most success with monoclonal antibody therapy in the treatment of haematological malignancies has come in the setting of adult B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with the addition of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab to standard treatment regimens. In order to further advance treatment of haematological malignancies, novel monoclonal antibodies continue to be developed that target a variety of cell surface antigens. Several antibodies continue to be investigated in childhood leukaemias. This review will discuss the development of monoclonal antibodies that target a variety of cell surface antigens for the treatment of childhood ALL and the use of the anti-CD33 antibody gemtuzumab ozogamicin in the treatment of childhood AML.
British Journal of Haematology 08/2012; 159(1):3-17. DOI:10.1111/bjh.12002 · 4.71 Impact Factor
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