Age-related changes in centripetal ciliary body movement relative to centripetal lens movement in monkeys

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792-3284, USA.
Experimental Eye Research (Impact Factor: 2.71). 08/2009; 89(6):824-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2009.07.009
Source: PubMed


The goal was to determine the age-related changes in accommodative movements of the lens and ciliary body in rhesus monkeys. Varying levels of accommodation were stimulated via the Edinger-Westphal (E-W) nucleus in 26 rhesus monkeys, aged 6-27 years, and the refractive changes were measured by coincidence refractometry. Centripetal ciliary process (CP) and lens movements were measured by computerized image analysis of goniovideographic images. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) at 50 MHz was used to visualize and measure accommodative forward movements of the ciliary body in relation to age, accommodative amplitude, and centripetal CP and lens movements. At approximately 3 diopters of accommodation, the amount of centripetal lens movement required did not significantly change with age (p = 0.10; n = 18 monkeys); however, the amount of centripetal CP movement required significantly increased with age (p = 0.01; n = 18 monkeys), while the amount of forward ciliary body movement significantly decreased with age (p = 0.007; n = 11 monkeys). In the middle-aged animals (12-16.5 years), a greater amount of centripetal CP movement was required to induce a given level of lens movement and thereby a given level of accommodation (p = 0.01), compared to the young animals (6-10 yrs). Collectively, the data suggests that, with age, the accommodative system may be attempting to compensate for the loss of forward ciliary body movement by increasing the amount of centripetal CP movement. This, in turn, would allow enough zonular relaxation to achieve the magnitude of centripetal lens movement necessary for a given amplitude of accommodation.

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Available from: Ting-Li Lin, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "Furthermore, exclusively in this study, the drug-induced forward movement of the ciliary body was measured. It is known from animal studies [10] that the forward movement of the ciliary body achieved by the contractions of the longitudinal parts of the ciliary muscle plays a paramount role in the physiologic process of accomodation. We have found a significant forward movement reflected by an average of 30° lessening in CBCA suggesting that the accomodative spasm of the ciliary muscle, additionally to its edema, also contributed to the development of the symptoms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Ingestion of sulphonamide-derived drugs has been reported to possibly have ocular side-effects. Authors aimed to present a rare case of indapamide-induced transient myopia with ciliary body edema and supraciliary effusion. A 39 years old caucasian female patient presented at the Department of Neurology with headache and sudden bilateral loss of distant vision. Neurological assessment and cranial CT scans were unremarkable. For her hypertension, twice a day bisoprolol 2.5 mg and once a day indapamide 1.5 mg tablets were prescribed several days before. At her presenting, ophthalmic findings were as follows: visual acuity 0.08-7.25Dsph = 1.0 and 0.06-7.25Dsph = 1.0; IOP 25 mmHg and 24 mmHg, anterior chamber depth (ACD) 2.32 mm and 2.49 mm, lens thickness (L) 4.02 mm and 4.09 mm in the right and the left eye, respectively. By means of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), thickened (720 / 700 micron) and detached ciliary body, its forward movement (ciliary body-cornea angle 108[prime] / 114[prime]) and forward rotated ciliary processes were seen. Angle opening distance (AOD500) were 300 / 314 microns. By the following days, the myopia gradually diminished, and a week after her first symptoms, her uncorrected visual acuity was 1.0 in both eyes, IOP 13 mmHg and 17 mmHg, ACD 3.68 mm and 3.66 mm, L 3.78 mm and 3.81 mm in the right and the left eye, respectively. Ciliary body edema and detachment disappeared (ciliary body thickness 225 / 230 micron), both of the ciliary body-cornea angle 134[prime] / 140[prime] and the AOD500 (650 / 640 microns) increased. At this point, the patient admitted that she had stopped taking indapamide two days before. Our case report is the third one in the literature to present indapamide-induced transient myopia, and the first to employ UBM for describing the characteristics of this rare condition. According to the findings, authors suggest that both ciliary muscle contraction and ciliary body edema may play role in the pathomechanism. UBM seems to be a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of acute myopia. Further, authors wish to draw attention to one of the potential adverse effects of this drug which was not listed by its package insert.
    BMC Ophthalmology 10/2013; 13(1):58. DOI:10.1186/1471-2415-13-58 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    • "The study of aspects of accommodation and presbyopia in rhesus monkeys relies on the ability to induce accommodation. While this can be accomplished behaviorally in awake monkeys (Bossong et al., 2009), the ability to scrutinize and image different aspects of the accommodative movements in the eyes often relies on contact imaging techniques such as ultrasound biomicroscopy (Croft et al., 2009) and gonioscopy (Ostrin and Glasser, 2007; Rosales et al., 2008; Wendt et al., 2008) that require working on anesthetized monkeys. It is therefore necessary to be able to induce accommodation in anesthetized monkeys in a reliable and reproducible manner. "
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have used pilocarpine to stimulate accommodation in both humans and monkeys. However, the concentrations of pilocarpine used and the methods of administration vary. In this study, three different methods of pilocarpine administration are evaluated for their effectiveness in stimulating accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed in 17 iridectomized, anesthetized rhesus monkeys aged 4-16 years. Maximum accommodation was stimulated in all these monkeys with a 2% pilocarpine solution maintained on the cornea for at least 30 min in a specially designed perfusion lens. In subsequent topical pilocarpine experiments, baseline refraction was measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer and then while the monkeys were upright and facing forward, commercially available pilocarpine (2, 4, or 6%) was applied topically to the cornea as 2 or 4 drops in two applications or 6 drops in three applications over a five minute period with the eyelids closed between applications. Alternatively, while supine, 10-12 drops of pilocarpine were maintained on the cornea in a scleral cup for 5 min. Refraction measurements were begun 5 min after the second application of pilocarpine and continued for at least 30 min after initial administration until no further change in refraction occurred. In intravenous experiments, pilocarpine was given either as boluses ranging from 0.1mg/kg to 2mg/kg or boluses followed by a constant infusion at rates between 3.06 mg/kg/h and 11.6 mg/kg/h. Constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye in the perfusion lens produced 10.88+/-2.73 D (mean+/-SD) of accommodation. Topically applied pilocarpine produced 3.81 D+/-2.41, 5.49 D+/-4.08, and 5.55 D+/-3.27 using 2%, 4%, and 6% solutions respectively. When expressed as a percentage of the accommodative response amplitude obtained in the same monkey with constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye, the responses were 34.7% for 2% pilocarpine, 48.4% for 4% pilocarpine, and 44.6% for 6% pilocarpine. Topical 4% and 6% pilocarpine achieved similar, variable accommodative responses, but neither achieved maximum accommodation. IV boluses of pilocarpine achieved near maximal levels of accommodation at least ten times faster than topical methods. Doses effective for producing maximum accommodation ranged from 0.25mg/kg to 1.0mg/kg. IV pilocarpine boluses caused an anterior movement of the anterior lens surface, a posterior movement of the posterior lens surface, and a slight net anterior movement of the entire lens. Considerable variability in response amplitude occurred and maximum accommodative amplitude was rarely achieved with topical application of a variety of concentrations of commercially available pilocarpine. Intravenous infusion of pilocarpine was a rapid and reliable method of producing a nearly maximal accommodative response and maintaining accommodation when desired.
    Experimental Eye Research 02/2010; 90(5):605-16. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2010.02.005 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the attachments of the posterior zonule and vitreous in relation to accommodation and presbyopia in monkeys and humans. Novel scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) techniques were used to visualize the anterior, intermediate, and posterior vitreous zonule and their connections to the ciliary body, vitreous membrane, lens capsule, and ora serrata, and to characterize their age-related changes and correlate them with loss of accommodative forward movement of the ciliary body. alpha-Chymotrypsin was used focally to lyse the vitreous zonule and determine the effect on movement of the accommodative apparatus in monkeys. The vitreous attached to the peripheral lens capsule and the ora serrata directly. The pars plana zonule and the posterior tines of the anterior zonule were separated from the vitreous membrane except for strategically placed attachments, collectively termed the vitreous zonule, that may modulate and smooth the forward and backward movements of the entire system. Age-dependent changes in these relationships correlated significantly with loss of accommodative amplitude. Lysis of the intermediate vitreous zonule partially restored accommodative movement. The vitreous zonule system may help to smoothly translate to the lens the driving forces of accommodation and disaccommodation generated by the ciliary muscle, while maintaining visual focus and protecting the lens capsule and ora serrata from acute tractional forces. Stiffening of the vitreous zonular system may contribute to age-related loss of accommodation and offer a therapeutic target for presbyopia.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 10/2009; 51(3):1554-64. DOI:10.1167/iovs.09-4008 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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