Age-related changes in centripetal ciliary body movement relative to centripetal lens movement in monkeys

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792-3284, USA.
Experimental Eye Research (Impact Factor: 2.71). 08/2009; 89(6):824-32. DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2009.07.009
Source: PubMed


The goal was to determine the age-related changes in accommodative movements of the lens and ciliary body in rhesus monkeys. Varying levels of accommodation were stimulated via the Edinger-Westphal (E-W) nucleus in 26 rhesus monkeys, aged 6-27 years, and the refractive changes were measured by coincidence refractometry. Centripetal ciliary process (CP) and lens movements were measured by computerized image analysis of goniovideographic images. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) at 50 MHz was used to visualize and measure accommodative forward movements of the ciliary body in relation to age, accommodative amplitude, and centripetal CP and lens movements. At approximately 3 diopters of accommodation, the amount of centripetal lens movement required did not significantly change with age (p = 0.10; n = 18 monkeys); however, the amount of centripetal CP movement required significantly increased with age (p = 0.01; n = 18 monkeys), while the amount of forward ciliary body movement significantly decreased with age (p = 0.007; n = 11 monkeys). In the middle-aged animals (12-16.5 years), a greater amount of centripetal CP movement was required to induce a given level of lens movement and thereby a given level of accommodation (p = 0.01), compared to the young animals (6-10 yrs). Collectively, the data suggests that, with age, the accommodative system may be attempting to compensate for the loss of forward ciliary body movement by increasing the amount of centripetal CP movement. This, in turn, would allow enough zonular relaxation to achieve the magnitude of centripetal lens movement necessary for a given amplitude of accommodation.

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    • "Furthermore, exclusively in this study, the drug-induced forward movement of the ciliary body was measured. It is known from animal studies [10] that the forward movement of the ciliary body achieved by the contractions of the longitudinal parts of the ciliary muscle plays a paramount role in the physiologic process of accomodation. We have found a significant forward movement reflected by an average of 30° lessening in CBCA suggesting that the accomodative spasm of the ciliary muscle, additionally to its edema, also contributed to the development of the symptoms. "
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    • "The study of aspects of accommodation and presbyopia in rhesus monkeys relies on the ability to induce accommodation. While this can be accomplished behaviorally in awake monkeys (Bossong et al., 2009), the ability to scrutinize and image different aspects of the accommodative movements in the eyes often relies on contact imaging techniques such as ultrasound biomicroscopy (Croft et al., 2009) and gonioscopy (Ostrin and Glasser, 2007; Rosales et al., 2008; Wendt et al., 2008) that require working on anesthetized monkeys. It is therefore necessary to be able to induce accommodation in anesthetized monkeys in a reliable and reproducible manner. "
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