Multisite randomized trial of behavioral interventions for women with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders.
ABSTRACT The authors compared the effectiveness of the Seeking Safety group, cognitive-behavioral treatment for substance use disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to an active comparison health education group (Women's Health Education [WHE]) within the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trials Network. The authors randomized 353 women to receive 12 sessions of Seeking Safety (M = 6.2 sessions) or WHE (M = 6.0 sessions) with follow-up assessment 1 week and 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment. Primary outcomes were the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the PTSD Symptom Scale-Self Report (PSS-SR), and a substance use inventory (self-reported abstinence and percentage of days of use over 7 days). Intention-to-treat analysis showed large, clinically significant reductions in CAPS and PSS-SR symptoms (d = 1.94 and 1.12, respectively) but no reliable difference between conditions. Substance use outcomes were not significantly different over time between the two treatments and at follow-up showed no significant change from baseline. Study results do not favor Seeking Safety over WHE as an adjunct to substance use disorder treatment for women with PTSD and reflect considerable opportunity to improve clinical outcomes in community-based treatments for these co-occurring conditions.
Article: Clinical utility and policy implications of a statewide mental health screening process for juvenile offenders.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined the utility of screening adjudicated juvenile offenders for mental health symptoms at intake to the State of Washington Juvenile Rehabilitation Administration. The authors assessed the ability of a screening measure, the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory, second edition (MAYSI-2), to identify youths with mental health problems and co-occurring substance use problems. This study also examined the relationship of these symptoms to treatment utilization both before and after intake to the juvenile justice system. Ethnic and gender differences in the screening results were studied. The MAYSI-2 was administered to 1,840 youths consecutively admitted to state custody. Cluster analysis was used to group the youths by mental health symptom status, and the relationship between symptoms and treatment utilization was tested in the groups identified in the cluster analysis. Youths who reported a high level of mental health symptoms, with or without co-occurring substance use problems, were more likely to have received previous mental health treatment than youths with a low level of mental health symptoms. Youths with a high level of mental health symptoms were more likely to receive extraordinary sentences and were thus less likely to be eligible for community transition programs than youths with a low level of mental health symptoms. Significant gender and ethnic differences in mental health symptom reporting on the screening inventory were found. Female offenders were significantly more likely than male offenders to report a high level of symptoms, and Hispanic youths were significantly less likely than youths in other ethnic groups to report a high level of symptoms. The MAYSI-2 has utility in identifying youths in the juvenile justice system who have mental health problems, and MAYSI-2 results are related to use of treatment services both before and after intake to the juvenile justice system. Ethnic and gender differences in MAYSI-2 reporting must be considered in interpreting mental health screening data.Psychiatric Services 04/2003; 54(3):377-82. · 2.38 Impact Factor
Article: Effects of integrated trauma treatment on outcomes in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of women in urban community-based substance abuse treatment.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study presents findings from a quasiexperimental, nonequivalent, group-design study with repeated measures that explored the effects of integrated trauma-informed services on the severity of substance abuse, mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology among women with histories of trauma in urban, community-based substance abuse treatment. The study also explored if the model of integrated services was equally beneficial for women of various racial/ethnic groups. Participants in the study were 342 women receiving substance abuse treatment in intervention and comparison sites. Results indicated that at 6 and 12 month follow-ups, those in the trauma-informed intervention group, in contrast to the comparison group, had significantly better outcomes in drug abstinence rates in the past 30 days as well as in mental health and PTSD symptomatology. Results also showed that, overall, integrated services were beneficial for women across the different racial/ethnic groups in substance abuse treatment, although some differences appear to exist across racial/ethnic groups in improving addiction severity and mental health and PTSD symptomatology.Journal of Urban Health 08/2007; 84(4):508-22. · 2.13 Impact Factor
Article: Equivalent outcomes during postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with lidocaine plus morphine versus morphine alone.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate a possible opioid-sparing effect of intravenous lidocaine we conducted a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Patients undergoing intraabdominal surgery under general anesthesia were treated with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) in three groups: Group 1 (n = 100; morphine 1 mg/mL), Group 2 (n = 44; morphine 1 mg/mL plus lidocaine 10 mg/mL), and Group 3 (n = 51; morphine 1 mg/mL plus lidocaine 20 mg/mL). Pain was evaluated using a 0-10 visual analog scale in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) during deep inhalation at 15 and 30 min, and at 1, 2, and 4 h after arrival in the PACU, and continued after PACU discharge every 4 h for 36 h. Patients whose pain was more than 4/10 in the PACU received 2.5 mliters of the respective solutions every 7 min until pain was less than 4/10; then PCA was started. The number of bolus and cumulative drug doses during the study were recorded. Along with pain intensity, we assessed vital signs and side effects. Time to acceptance of oral liquids was also determined. Adding lidocaine 10 or 20 mg/mL to PCA morphine 1 mg/mL for acute pain treatment after abdominal surgery yielded no differences in opioid use, pain levels, or side effects.Anesthesia & Analgesia 08/1996; 83(1):102-6. · 3.29 Impact Factor