Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Adults 20 Years of Age and Over, by Sex, Age, Race and Ethnicity, and Body Mass Index: United States, 2003–2006

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782, USA.
National health statistics reports 06/2009; 5(13):1-7.
Source: PubMed


The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome as well as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006.
The analytic sample consisted of 3,423 adults, 20 years of age and over, from NHANES 2003-2006. The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III) guidelines were used to identify adults who met their criteria for metabolic syndrome. Prevalence estimates were calculated for each risk factor for metabolic syndrome in addition to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Prevalence estimates and odds ratios were analyzed by sex and by age group, race and ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) stratified by sex.
Approximately 34% of adults met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Males and females 40-59 years of age were about three times as likely as those 20-39 years of age to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome. Males 60 years of age and over were more than four times as likely and females 60 years of age and over were more than six times as likely as the youngest age group to meet the criteria. Non-Hispanic black males were about one-half as likely as non-Hispanic white males to meet the criteria for metabolic syndrome, while non-Hispanic black and Mexican-American females were about 1.5 times as likely as non-Hispanic white females to meet the criteria. Overweight males were about six times as likely and obese males were about 32 times as likely as normal weight males to meet the criteria. Overweight females were more than five times as likely and obese females were more than 17 times as likely as normal weight females to meet the criteria.
These results demonstrate that metabolic syndrome is prevalent and that it increases with age and with BMI. The prevalence varied by race and ethnicity but the pattern was different for males and females.

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    • "The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing throughout the world. According to the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) [4], the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults in the United States was approximately 23% from 1988 to 1994, but increased to almost 34% from 2003 to 2006 even though the criterion for fasting blood glucose was updated to 100 mg/dl [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims To briefly summarize findings from epidemiological studies on the relationship between dairy product consumption and the metabolic syndrome(MetS). Materials and methods A search for relevant literature was undertaken on Web of Science, Google scholar, Pubmed (2000 to July 2013), to identify observational studies which examined the association between dairy intake and MetS (prevalence or incidence), and for any randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of dairy intake on MetS. Results Here we review the physiological effects and possible mechanisms involved of three main dairy constituents (calcium (Ca), protein, fat) on important components of the MetS. Effects of Ca may be related to intestinal binding to fatty acids or bile acids, or to changes in intracellular Ca metabolism by suppressing calciotropic hormones. Dietary proteins may increase satiety in both the short and longer term, which may result in a reduced energy intake. Dairy proteins are precursors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme-inhibitory peptides, which may lower blood pressure. To reduce the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA), the consumption of low-fat instead of high-fat dairy products is recommended. Conclusion More research is warranted to better understand the physiological effects and the mechanisms involved of dairy products in the prevention and treatment of the MetS.
    Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome Clinical Research and Reviews 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.dsx.2014.04.027
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    • "The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex metabolic disease affecting a little more than one-third of adults in the united states and has become a leading health concern due to its link to cardiovascular disease (CVD)[1]. Asian Indians have been considered to be a " high-risk population " for both MetS and CVD as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is varied by race and ethnicity[2]. "
    02/2015; 6(2):118. DOI:10.7439/ijbr.v6i2.1698
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    • "Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of risk factors including increased cholesterol concentrations, high blood pressure, larger waist circumference, and elevated blood glucose. Based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 34% of adults 20 and older meet the criteria for MetS [1]. The individual components of MetS are risk factors for both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of pterostilbene on metabolic parameters. Methods. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study that enrolled 80 patients with a total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL and/or LDL ≥ 100 mg/dL. Subjects were divided into four groups: (1) pterostilbene 125 mg twice daily; (2) pterostilbene 50 mg twice daily; (3) pterostilbene 50 mg + grape extract (GE) 100 mg twice daily; (4) matching placebo twice daily for 6-8 weeks. Endpoints included lipids, blood pressure, and weight. Linear mixed models were used to examine and compare changes in parameters over time. Models were adjusted for age, gender, and race. Results. LDL increased with pterostilbene monotherapy (17.1 mg/dL; P = 0.001) which was not seen with GE combination (P = 0.47). Presence of a baseline cholesterol medication appeared to attenuate LDL effects. Both systolic (-7.8 mmHg; P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-7.3 mmHg; P < 0.001) were reduced with high dose pterostilbene. Patients not on cholesterol medication (n = 51) exhibited minor weight loss with pterostilbene (-0.62 kg/m(2); P = 0.012). Conclusion. Pterostilbene increases LDL and reduces blood pressure in adults. This trial is registered with NCT01267227.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 06/2014; 2014:459165. DOI:10.1155/2014/459165 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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