Article

Molecular and immunohistochemical evidence for the origin of uterine leiomyosarcomas from associated leiomyoma and symplastic leiomyoma-like areas

Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA.
Modern Pathology (Impact Factor: 6.36). 08/2009; 22(10):1303-11. DOI: 10.1038/modpathol.2009.96
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is uncertain whether uterine leiomyosarcoma arises de novo or in preexisting leiomyoma. Leiomyoma-like areas can be seen associated with uterine leiomyosarcoma, raising the possibility of precursor lesions for uterine leiomyosarcoma. In this study, we examined cases of uterine leiomyosarcoma associated with leiomyoma-like areas at the histological, immunohistochemical and DNA level to further evaluate if benign-looking leiomyoma-like and uterine leiomyosarcoma areas are related. Cases of uterine leiomyosarcoma observed at the New York University Medical Center from 1994 to 2007 were reviewed for the presence of leiomyoma-like areas. Of the 26 cases of uterine leiomyosarcoma observed during this period, 18 cases had an associated leiomyoma-like area (five cellular leiomyoma, four symplastic leiomyoma, four cellular and symplastic leiomyoma and five usual type leiomyoma). Sixteen of the 18 cases were examined immunohistochemically for Ki-67, for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and for p53. Immunohistochemical profiles were as expected for leiomyoma-like (the mean expression of p53, ER, PR and Ki-67 at 0.3, 63, 75 and 0.6%, respectively), symplastic leiomyoma-like areas (the mean expression of p53, ER, PR and Ki-67 at 0.6, 85, 89 and 5.5%, respectively) and uterine leiomyosarcoma areas (the mean expression of p53, ER, PR and Ki-67 at 52, 38, 39 and 61%, respectively). In six cases, the leiomyoma-like and uterine leiomyosarcoma areas from each case were examined using high-density oligonucleotide array-CGH to determine genetic aberrations in the two areas. Nearly all the genetic aberrations found in leiomyoma-like areas were also found in the corresponding uterine leiomyosarcoma areas. In addition, uterine leiomyosarcoma areas had additional genetic aberrations. The immunohistochemical profiles and genetic aberrations of the examined cases suggest that uterine leiomyosarcoma could arise from the preexisting leiomyoma-like areas that often have a symplastic or cellular morphology.

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    • "Regarding the former, cases of “myometrial dysplasia (atypical myometrial hyperplasia)” that may represent a precursor lesion to leiomyosarcoma have been described [4], as have leiomyosarcomas that appeared to be arising directly out of leiomyomas [5–7]. Molecular and immunohistochemical lines of evidence support the derivation of some uterine leiomyosarcomas from associated leiomyoma and symplastic leiomyoma-like areas [5]. On the other end of the spectrum, biologic progression is exemplified in cases described as showing tumor dedifferentiation [8, 9], which has been described twice previously. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dedifferentiation is a phenomenon that is well characterized in a variety of tumors and is defined by the occurrence of a high-grade or undifferentiated tumor, typically unrecognizable regarding its line of differentiation, from a low-grade/borderline neoplasm. This phenomenon has previously been described in 2 uterine leiomyosarcomas, but both were devoid of heterologous elements. The authors describe herein a case of a dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma of the uterus with osteoid heterologous elements, believed to be the first such reported case. The original tumor was a high-grade leiomyosarcoma with large low-grade and leiomyoma-like areas and whose constituent cells displayed intense nuclear immunoreactivity for both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in approximately 30% of cells. The tumor recurred six months after its resection as an undifferentiated sarcoma that was negative for smooth muscle markers, but which remained positive for ER and PR. Osteoid production was only identified in the recurrent tumor and was significant in extent therein. This case highlights the immunophenotypic changes that may occur in dedifferentiated leiomyosarcomas, and this possibility should be a consideration when an apparently undifferentiated sarcoma is identified in a patient with a history of uterine leiomyosarcoma. In our case, the expression of ER and PR provided significant supportive evidence of the uterine origin of the recurrent tumor.
    10/2012; 2012:534634. DOI:10.1155/2012/534634
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    • "The mutated STUMP exhibits a similar profile, whereas the two mutated LMS show lots of chromosome gains and losses. We could thus see that the mutated tumors exhibit the features previously described for their respective histotype [23]–[24]. When we looked at the tumor genomic profiles according to MED12 expression data, we observed that all tumors with no MED12 protein expression exhibit very rearranged genomic profiles. "
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between benign uterine leiomyomas and their malignant counterparts, i.e. leiomyosarcomas and smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP), is still poorly understood. The idea that a leiomyosarcoma could derive from a leiomyoma is still controversial. Recently MED12 mutations have been reported in uterine leiomyomas. In this study we asked whether such mutations could also be involved in leiomyosarcomas and STUMP oncogenesis. For this purpose we examined 33 uterine mesenchymal tumors by sequencing the hot-spot mutation region of MED12. We determined that MED12 is altered in 66.6% of typical leiomyomas as previously reported but also in 11% of STUMP and 20% of leiomyosarcomas. The mutated allele is predominantly expressed in leiomyomas and STUMP. Interestingly all classical leiomyomas exhibit MED12 protein expression while 40% of atypical leiomyomas, 50% of STUMP and 80% of leiomyosarcomas (among them the two mutated ones) do not express MED12. All these tumors without protein expression exhibit complex genomic profiles. No mutations and no expression loss were identified in an additional series of 38 non-uterine leiomyosarcomas. MED12 mutations are not exclusive to leiomyomas but seem to be specific to uterine malignancies. A previous study has suggested that MED12 mutations in leiomyomas could lead to Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation however our immunohistochemistry results show that there is no association between MED12 status and β-catenin nuclear/cytoplasmic localization. Collectively, our results show that subgroups of benign and malignant tumors share a common genetics. We propose here that MED12 alterations could be implicated in the development of smooth muscle tumor and that its expression could be inhibited in malignant tumors.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e40015. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040015 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "To improve the prognosis of human uterine LMS, studies are being performed to identify the roles of key pro- and anti-oncogenic factors that have important functions in tumor pathogenesis and may serve as molecular targets for treatment. For this purpose, several research groups have shown that cell cycle regulatory factors and known pro-oncogenic factors, such as the brain-specific polypeptide PEP-19 and c-kit, may be associated with the pathogenesis of human uterine LMS45464748. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although the majority of smooth muscle neoplasms found in the uterus are benign, uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is extremely malignant, with high rates of recurrence and metastasis. We earlier reported that mice with a homozygous deficiency for LMP2, an interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible factor, spontaneously develop uterine LMS. The IFN-γ pathway is important for control of tumor growth and invasion and has been implicated in several cancers. In this study, experiments with human and mouse uterine tissues revealed a defective LMP2 expression in human uterine LMS that was traced to the IFN-γ pathway and the specific effect of JAK-1 somatic mutations on the LMP2 transcriptional activation. Furthermore, analysis of a human uterine LMS cell line clarified the biological significance of LMP2 in malignant myometrium transformation and cell cycle, thus implicating LMP2 as an anti-tumorigenic candidate. This role of LMP2 as a tumor suppressor may lead to new therapeutic targets in human uterine LMS.
    Scientific Reports 12/2011; 1:180. DOI:10.1038/srep00180 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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