Camptothecin and Fas receptor agonists synergistically induce medulloblastoma cell death: ROS-dependent mechanisms.
ABSTRACT Medulloblastoma, a common malignant pediatric brain tumor, is highly resistant to death receptor-mediated apoptosis despite death receptor expression by tumor cells. Developing new strategies to overcome this resistance to death receptor activation could positively impact therapeutic outcomes. We explored the modulation of death receptor-induced medulloblastoma cell death by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT). CPT significantly increased the human medulloblastoma DAOY cell death response to agonistic anti-Fas antibody (CH-11). Cell death after CPT, CH-11, and CPT+CH-11 treatment was 9, 7, and 33%, respectively. Isobologram analysis showed that CH-11 and CPT act synergistically to induce cell death in DAOY cells. A similar pattern of synergism between CPT and CH-11 was found in ONS-76 medulloblastoma cells. Synergistic cell death was found to be predominantly apoptotic involving both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways as evidenced by annexin V staining, cleavage of caspases (3, 8, and 9), Bid and PARP, and cytoprotection by caspase inhibitors. Flow cytometric analyses showed that expression of cell surface Fas or Fas ligand did not change with drug treatment. Western blot analyses showed that the combination of CH-11+CPT induced a significant decrease in XIAP levels. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species, especially O2, were elevated after CPT treatment, and even more so by the CH-11+CPT treatment. The antioxidants glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine prevented cell death induced by CPT+CH-11. Moreover, the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor rotenone potentiated CH-11-induced apoptosis in DAOY cells. Taken together, these findings show that CPT synergizes with Fas activation to induce medulloblastoma apoptosis through a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress pathways.
SourceAvailable from: Klas Norrby[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Metronomic chemotherapy, which is continuously administered systemically at close to non-toxic doses, targets the endothelial cells (ECs) that are proliferating during tumor angiogenesis. This leads to harmful effects of an even greatly increased number contiguous tumor cells. Although pre-clinical studies of angiogenesis-related EC features in vitro and of the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects in vivo of metronomic chemotherapy have provided valuable insights, clinical trials with this type of therapy have been less successful in inhibiting tumor growth. One possible reason for the apparent disconnect between the pre-clinical and clinical outcomes is that most of the currently used experimental angiogenesis assays and tumor models are incapable of yielding data that can be translated readily into the clinical setting. Many of the assays used suffer from unintentional artifactual effects, e.g., oxidative stress in vitro, and inflammation in vivo, which reduces the sensitivity and discriminatory power of the assays. Co-treatment with an antioxidant or the inclusion of antioxidants in the vehicle often significantly affects the angiogenesis-modulating outcome of metronomic mono-chemotherapy in vivo. This 'metronomic chemotherapy vehicle factor' merits further study, as do the observations of antagonistic effects following metronomic treatment with a combination of standard chemotherapeutic drugs in vivo.Apmis 10/2013; DOI:10.1111/apm.12201 · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene deletions are among the earliest and most frequent events in carcinogenesis, particularly in carcinogen-exposed tissues. Though FHIT has been established as an authentic tumor suppressor, the mechanism underlying tumor suppression remains opaque. Most experiments designed to clarify FHIT function have analyzed the consequence of re-expressing FHIT in FHIT-negative cells. However, carcinogenesis occurs in cells that transition from FHIT-positive to FHIT-negative. To better understand cancer development, we induced FHIT loss in human bronchial epithelial cells with RNA interference. Because FHIT is a demonstrated target of carcinogens in cigarette smoke, we combined FHIT silencing with cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure and measured gene expression consequences by RNA microarray. The data indicate that FHIT loss enhances the expression of a set of oxidative stress response genes after exposure to CSE, including the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) at the RNA and protein levels. Data are consistent with a mechanism in which Fhit protein is required for accumulation of the transcriptional repressor of HMOX1, Bach1 protein. We posit that by allowing superinduction of oxidative stress response genes, loss of FHIT creates a survival advantage that promotes carcinogenesis.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 09/2014; 13(18):2913-30. DOI:10.4161/15384101.2014.946858 · 5.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Combinations of anticancer agents may have synergistic anti-tumor effects, but enhanced hematological toxicity often limit their clinical use. We examined whether "microarray profiles" could be used to compare early molecular responses following a single dose of agents administered individually with that of the agents administered in a combination. We compared the mRNA responses within bone marrow of Sprague-Dawley rats after a single 30 min treatment with topotecan at 4.7 mg/kg or oxaliplatin at 15 mg/kg alone to that of sequentially administered combination therapy or vehicle control for 1, 6, and 24 h. We also examined the histopathology of the bone marrow following all treatments. Drug-related histopathological lesions were limited to bone marrow hypocellularity for animals dosed with either agent alone or in combination. Lesions had an earlier onset and higher incidence for animals given topotecan alone or in combination with oxaliplatin. Severity increased from mild to moderate when topotecan was administered prior to oxaliplatin compared with administering oxaliplatin first. Notably, six patterns of co-expressed genes were detected at the 1 h time point that indicate regulatory expression of genes that are dependent on the order of the administration. These results suggest alterations in histone biology, chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, bone regeneration, and respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation are among the prominent pathways modulated in bone marrow from animals treated with an oxaliplatin/topotecan combination. These data also demonstrate the potential for early mRNA patterns derived from target organs of toxicity to inform toxicological risk and molecular mechanisms for agents given in combination.Frontiers in Genetics 01/2015; 6:14. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2015.00014