Medulloblastoma, a common malignant pediatric brain tumor, is highly resistant to death receptor-mediated apoptosis despite death receptor expression by tumor cells. Developing new strategies to overcome this resistance to death receptor activation could positively impact therapeutic outcomes. We explored the modulation of death receptor-induced medulloblastoma cell death by the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT). CPT significantly increased the human medulloblastoma DAOY cell death response to agonistic anti-Fas antibody (CH-11). Cell death after CPT, CH-11, and CPT+CH-11 treatment was 9, 7, and 33%, respectively. Isobologram analysis showed that CH-11 and CPT act synergistically to induce cell death in DAOY cells. A similar pattern of synergism between CPT and CH-11 was found in ONS-76 medulloblastoma cells. Synergistic cell death was found to be predominantly apoptotic involving both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways as evidenced by annexin V staining, cleavage of caspases (3, 8, and 9), Bid and PARP, and cytoprotection by caspase inhibitors. Flow cytometric analyses showed that expression of cell surface Fas or Fas ligand did not change with drug treatment. Western blot analyses showed that the combination of CH-11+CPT induced a significant decrease in XIAP levels. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species, especially O2, were elevated after CPT treatment, and even more so by the CH-11+CPT treatment. The antioxidants glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine prevented cell death induced by CPT+CH-11. Moreover, the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I inhibitor rotenone potentiated CH-11-induced apoptosis in DAOY cells. Taken together, these findings show that CPT synergizes with Fas activation to induce medulloblastoma apoptosis through a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress pathways.
"In a PDT process, absorption of light will promote the photosensitizer molecules to initiate the generation of ROS in tumor cells. Some anticancer drug, such as camptothecin , can also be incorporated into the pores of MSNs and delivered into a variety of human cancer cells to induce cell death by ROS-dependent mechanism . But few papers have reported whether MSNs also cause the changes of ROS level in cells by themselves. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concept that mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are regarded as ideal novel drug delivery carriers in tumor therapy has been introduced extensively, but the effects of MSNs on tumor growth have received little attention. Here a model of nude mice xenografted with human malignant melanoma cells (A375) was used to investigate the effect of MSNs on tumor growth. Surprisingly, we found that MSNs have no toxicity to human malignant melanoma but increasing tumor growth in vivo. It was also confirmed that MSNs significantly promoted A375 cell proliferation and accelerated cell cycle progression in vitro. Cellular uptake mechanism showed that MSNs may affect molecular behavior of A375 cells when they entered into cytoplasm. Then, a detailed mechanism indicated that the promotion effect induced by MSNs was due to the decreasing of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. Further results demonstrated that the upregulation of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 expression and the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation by MSNs may promote cell proliferation in a redox-sensitive signal pathway. These results show that tumor growth can be regulated by nanocarriers themselves in a ROS-dependent manner and imply that nanocarriers are not necessarily suitable for all kinds of tumor therapy in development drug delivery system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq have demonstrated that body armor has led to increase survival of combatants but the extremity injuries have been alarming. The increased numbers of extremity injuries have led to the acceptance and use of negative pressure therapy (NPT) in managing large wounds. This article reviews some of the lessons learned in treating wounds of the upper extremity using NPT.
Journal of Hand Therapy 04/2008; 21(2):196-202; quiz 203. DOI:10.1197/j.jht.2007.12.007 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Fas/Fas Ligand (FasL) system and survivin have counteracting roles in cell survival. Therefore, we explored the role of circulating soluble Fas (sFas) and the tissue levels of Fas and survivin with regard to response to chemotherapy in lung cancer patients. Serum samples from 52 lung cancer patients and 54 control subjects (19 benign lung disease and 35 healthy control subjects) were collected prior to and 24 and 48 h after chemotherapy. sFas was statistically significantly higher in the cancer group than that in the control groups (p < 0.001). Baseline (before chemotherapy) sFas values showed a statistically significant inverse correlation with overall survival (r = -0.599, p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in serum sFas levels 24 h after treatment (p < 0.05). Contrarily, tissue levels of Fas and survivin were not changed following the chemotherapy (p > 0,05). In conclusion, increased sFas may be an indicator of poor outcome in lung cancer patients. However, cisplatin-based chemotherapy may not be effective via neither the Fas/FasL system nor survivin pathway. Indeed, larger sample size is required for further evaluation.
Cell Biochemistry and Function 10/2010; 28(7):565-70. DOI:10.1002/cbf.1689 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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