The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is expressed during lineage-specific differentiation (e.g. adipogenesis) and is activated by TSH, thyroid-stimulating antibodies, and gain-of-function mutations (TSHR*). Comparison of gene expression profiles of nonmodified human preadipocytes (n = 4) with the parallel TSHR* population revealed significant up-regulation of 27 genes including hyaluronan (HA) synthases (HAS) 1 and 2. The array data were confirmed by quantitative PCR of HAS1 and HAS2 and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement of HA; all values were significantly increased (p < 0.03) in TSHR*-expressing preadipocytes (n = 10). Preadipocytes (n = 8) treated with dibutyryl (db)-cAMP display significantly increased HAS1 and HAS2 transcripts, HAS2 protein, and HA production (p < 0.02). HAS1 or HAS2 small interfering RNA treatment of db-cAMP-stimulated preadipocytes (n = 4) produced 80% knockdown in HAS1 or 61% knockdown in HAS2 transcripts (compared with scrambled), respectively; the corresponding HA production was reduced by 49 or 38%. Reporter assays using A293 cells transfected with HAS1 promoter-driven plasmids containing or not containing the proximal CRE and treated with db-cAMP revealed that it is functional. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, using a cAMP-responsive element-binding protein antibody, of db-cAMP-treated preadipocytes (n = 4) yielded products for HAS1 and HAS2 with relative fold increases of 3.3 +/- 0.8 and 2.6 +/- 0.9, respectively. HA accumulates in adipose/connective tissues of patients with thyroid dysfunction. We investigated the contributions of TSH and thyroid-stimulating antibodies and obtained small (9-24%) but significant (p < 0.02) increases in preadipocyte HA production with both ligands. Similar results were obtained with a TSHR monoclonal antibody lacking biological activity (p < 0.05). We conclude that TSHR activation is implicated in HA production in preadipocytes, which, along with thyroid hormone level variation, explains the HA overproduction in thyroid dysfunction.
"They express an unusual gene profile especially when treated with inflammatory cytokines . They exhibit biosynthetic activities such as the exaggerated production of the glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan ,  and the exaggerated induction by cytokines of prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase-2, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase –. TAO fibroblasts represent two distinct populations on the basis of their display of CD34 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) comprises two subunits, including a ligand binding domain on extra- cellular IGF-1Rα and a tyrosine phosphorylation site located on IGF-1Rβ. IGF-1R is over-expressed by orbital fibroblasts in the autoimmune syndrome, Graves' disease (GD). When activated by IGF-1 or GD-derived IgG (GD-IgG), these fibroblasts produce RANTES and IL-16, while those from healthy donors do not. We now report that IGF-1 and GD-IgG provoke IGF-1R accumulation in the cell nucleus of GD fibroblasts where it co-localizes with chromatin. Nuclear IGF-1R is detected with anti-IGF-1Rα-specific mAb and migrates to approximately 110 kDa, consistent with its identity as an IGF-1R fragment. Nuclear IGF-1R migrating as a 200 kDa protein and consistent with an intact receptor was undetectable when probed with either anti-IGF-1Rα or anti-IGF-1Rβ mAbs. Nuclear redistribution of IGF-1R is absent in control orbital fibroblasts. In GD fibroblasts, it can be abolished by an IGF-1R-blocking mAb, 1H7 and by physiological concentrations of glucocorticoids. When cell-surface IGF-1R is cross-linked with (125)I IGF-1, (125)I-IGF-1/IGF-1R complexes accumulate in the nuclei of GD fibroblasts. This requires active ADAM17, a membrane associated metalloproteinase, and the phosphorylation of IGF-1R. In contrast, virally encoded IGF-1Rα/GFP fusion protein localizes equivalently in nuclei in both control and GD fibroblasts. This result suggests that generation of IGF-1R fragments may limit the accumulation of nuclear IGF-1R. We thus identify a heretofore-unrecognized behavior of IGF-1R that appears limited to GD-derived fibroblasts. Nuclear IGF-1R may play a role in disease pathogenesis.
PLoS ONE 04/2012; 7(4):e34173. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034173 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In addition, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R) has been recognized as a relevant antigen in the pathogenesis of GO, perhaps serving as a second autoantigen (Weightman et al. 1993, Pritchard et al. 2003, Drexhage 2006). Resident fibroblasts and adipose tissue express functional TSHR and IGF1R (Bell et al. 2000, Zhang et al. 2009) and represent the key participants in orbital tissue remodeling in GO (Smith 2003), Recently, bone marrow-derived CD34 C fibrocytes have been detected among the fibroblasts inhabiting the orbit in GO, which express both receptors (Douglas et al. 2010, Kahaly 2010). Fibrocytes possess unique properties that render them well suited for participation in the pathological changes occurring in GO. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TSH receptor (TSHR) is the critical target for antibody production in Graves' disease (GD). Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) has been proposed as a second autoantigen in complications of GD such as orbitopathy. We attempted to induce orbital tissue remodeling in mice undergoing immunizations with plasmids encoding TSHR and IGF1R delivered by in vivo skeletal muscle electroporation, a procedure known to give a sustained, long-term antibody response. Female BALB/c mice were challenged with TSHR A-subunit or IGF1Rα subunit plasmid by injection and electroporation. Mice challenged with TSHR A-subunit plasmid resulted in high frequency (75%) of hyperthyroidism and thyroid-stimulating antibodies. But strikingly, immunization with TSHR A-subunit plasmid also elicited antibody to IGF1Rα subunit. Mice challenged in the same manner with IGF1Rα subunit plasmid produced strong antibody responses to IGF1R, but did not undergo any changes in phenotype. Simultaneous challenge by double antigen immunization with the two plasmids in distant anatomical sites reduced the incidence of hyperthyroidism, potentially as a consequence of antigenic competition. Thyroid glands from the TSHR A-subunit plasmid-challenged group were enlarged with patchy microscopic infiltrates. Histological analysis of the orbital tissues demonstrated moderate connective tissue fibrosis and deposition of Masson's trichrome staining material. Our findings imply that immunization with TSHR A-subunit plasmid leads to generation of IGF1R antibodies, which together with thyroid-stimulating antibodies may precipitate remodeling of orbital tissue, raising our understanding of its close association with GD.
Journal of Endocrinology 06/2011; 210(3):369-77. DOI:10.1530/JOE-11-0162 · 3.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary form only given. We demonstrated fast wavelength switching using an OTDM channel selector and a TOAD, with an average latency of 173ps and a maximum latency of 320ps. This system has potential applications in a low latency wavelength converter or wavelength router. By replacing the local source with our system, a wavelength converter can change the wavelength at its output within a few bit periods.
All-Optical Networking: Existing and Emerging Architecture and Applications/Dynamic Enablers of Next-Generation Optical Communications Systems/Fast Optical Processing in Optical Transmission/VCSEL and Microcavity Lasers. 2002 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topi; 02/2002
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