Cooperation between PU.1 and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta is necessary to induce the expression of the MD-2 gene.
ABSTRACT Myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) binds Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide with high affinity and is essential for Toll-like receptor 4-dependent signal transduction. MD-2 has recently been recognized as a type II acute phase protein. Plasma concentrations of the soluble form of MD-2 increase markedly during the course of severe infections. Its production is regulated in hepatocytes and myeloid cells by interleukin-6 (IL-6) but not IL-1beta. In the present work we show that two transcription factors (TF), PU.1 and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), participate in the activation of the human MD-2 gene in hepatocytic cells after stimulation with IL-6. PU.1 TF and proximal PU.1 binding sites in the MD-2 promoter were shown to be critical for the basal activity of the promoter as well as for IL-6-induced soluble MD-2 production. Deletions of proximal portions of the MD-2 promoter containing PU.1 and/or NF-IL-6 consensus binding sites as well as site-directed mutagenesis of these binding sites abrogated IL-6-dependent MD-2 gene activation. We show that the cooperation between C/EBPbeta and PU.1 is critical for the transcriptional activation of the MD-2 gene by IL-6. PU.1 was essentially known as a TF involved in the differentiation of myeloid precursor cells and the expression of surface receptors of the innate immunity. Herein, we show that it also participates in the regulation of an acute phase protein, MD-2, in nonmyeloid cells cooperatively with C/EBPbeta, a classical IL-6-inducible TF.
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ABSTRACT: Members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate dorsoventral patterning and cellular adhesion in insects as well as immune responses to microbial products in both insects and mammals. TLRs are characterized by extracellular leucine-rich repeat domains and an intracellular signaling domain that shares homology with cytoplasmic sequences of the mammalian IL-1 receptor and plant disease resistance genes. Ten human TLRs have been cloned as well as RP105, a protein similar to TLR4 but lacking the intracellular signaling domain. However, only five TLRs have described functions as receptors for bacterial products (e.g., LPS, lipoproteins). To identify potential sites of action, we used quantitative real-time RT-PCR to examine systematically the expression of mRNAs encoding all known human TLRs, RP105, and several other proteins important in TLR functions (e.g., MD-1, MD-2, CD14, MyD88). Most tissues tested expressed at least one TLR, and several expressed all (spleen, peripheral blood leukocytes). Analysis of TLR expression in fractionated primary human leukocytes (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD19(+), monocytes, and granulocytes) indicates that professional phagocytes express the greatest variety of TLR mRNAs although several TLRs appear more restricted to B cells, suggesting additional roles for TLRs in adaptive immunity. Monocyte-like THP-1 cells regulate TLR mRNA levels in response to a variety of stimuli including phorbol esters, LPS, bacterial lipoproteins, live bacteria, and cytokines. Furthermore, addition of Escherichia coli to human blood ex vivo caused distinct changes in TLR expression, suggesting that important roles exist for these receptors in the establishment and resolution of infections and inflammation.The Journal of Immunology 02/2002; 168(2):554-61. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Soluble proteins that bind LPS, like myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) and CD14, have essential roles in regulating LPS signaling through TLR4. During a gram-negative bacterial infection, the host may control the response by adjusting the levels of soluble MD-2 and CD14. To address the surface expression of MD-2 on human leukocytes, we developed a mAb, IIC1, that recognized MD-2 both free and when bound to TLR4. MD-2 was found on the surface of freshly isolated monocytes, on a subpopulation of CD19(+) B-cells and on CD15(+) neutrophils. LPS transiently reduced the MD-2 levels on monocytes, which is most likely due to endocytosis of the LPS receptor complex since MD-2 colocalized with TLR4 in early endosomes after LPS stimulation. In the absence of LPS, MD-2 partly colocalized with TLR4 in Golgi trans and medial compartments. Cultivating monocytes for 18-20 h resulted in loss of MD-2 expression on the surface, which was reversed either by LPS or IL-10. Furthermore, addition of IL-10, but not LPS, resulted in a considerable increase in mRNA for both MD-2 and CD14. Using ELISA, we demonstrated that IL-10 had a profound dose- and time-related effect on the release of soluble MD-2 and soluble CD14 from monocytes. In HIV-infected patients, the amounts of MD-2, CD14, and IL-10 increased significantly in the patient group with AIDS. Of interest, we found that IL-10, CD14, and MD-2 levels were positively correlated, suggesting that IL-10 may be a driving force for increased release of MD-2 and CD14 during systemic inflammation.The Journal of Immunology 02/2009; 182(1):588-95. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: GM-CSF gene targeted (GM(-/-)) mice are susceptible to respiratory infections and develop alveolar proteinosis due to defects in innate immune function and surfactant catabolism in alveolar macrophages (AMs), respectively. Reduced cell adhesion, phagocytosis, pathogen killing, mannose- and Toll-like receptor expression, and LPS- or peptidoglycan-stimulated TNFalpha release were observed in AMs from GM(-/-) mice. The transcription factor PU.1 was markedly reduced in AMs of GM(-/-) mice in vivo and was restored by selective expression of GM-CSF in the lungs of SPC-GM/GM(-/-) transgenic mice. Retrovirus-mediated expression of PU.1 in AMs from GM(-/-) mice rescued host defense functions and surfactant catabolism by AMs. We conclude that PU.1 mediates GM-CSF-dependent effects on terminal differentiation of AMs regulating innate immune functions and surfactant catabolism by AMs.Immunity 11/2001; 15(4):557-67. · 19.80 Impact Factor