Delayed reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome following chemotherapy with oxaliplatin.
ABSTRACT Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy (RPLS), also known as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, is characterized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of reversible vasogenic subcortical edema without infarction. The clinical presentation is usually nonspecific and typically involves global encephalopathy, seizures, headache, or visual symptoms. MRI of the brain is essential to the diagnosis of RPLS. Typical findings of RPLS include high-intensity signal on T2-weighted images predominantly in the posterior lobes of the brain that is caused by subcortical white matter vasogenic edema. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences on MRI improve sensitivity and detect subtle peripheral lesions. This clinical radiographic syndrome has been described in a number of medical conditions, with hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, and the use of immunosuppressant drugs (most notably calcineurin inhibitors) being the most common. It has occasionally been reported with cisplatin and rarely with carboplatin. Its occurrence with oxaliplatin is very unusual. An extensive literature search including PUBMED and direct contact with the drug manufacturer yielded only 2 known case reports. Herein, we describe a case that had classic clinical and radiologic features of RPLS. We also briefly describe 2 other patients who have been described to have RPLS with oxaliplatin in the literature.
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ABSTRACT: Seizure is a foreseeable risk in patients with brain lesion. However, seizure during treating non-brain lesion is not a familiar situation to neurosurgeon. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a relatively common situation after systemic chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to make neurosurgeons aware of this potential medical problem. A 52-year-old woman with advanced gastric cancer, presented with low back pain due to spinal metastasis at the 4th lumbar vertebra. Ten cycles of chemotherapy with FOLFOX (5-Fluoruracil/Oxaliplatin) had been completed 23 days ago. Two days before the planned operation, a generalized tonic clonic seizure occurred. She did not have a history of hypertension or seizure. The seizure was stopped with lorazepam 4mg. The brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed high signal changes in both parieto-occipital lobes on the T2-weighted images, and these were partially enhanced, suggesting PRES. The surgery was preceded by treatment with an antiepileptic drug. The MR images, taken 1.5 months after the seizure, showed that the lesion was no longer present. At 3 month follow-up, no additional seizure attack occurred without any seizure medication. The possibility of a seizure attack should be considered if the patient has a history of chemotherapy.Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society 07/2011; 50(1):60-3. · 0.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is uncommon neurological syndrome that is characterized by specific clinical and radiologic findings. Previous reported associations of RPLS include hypertension, eclampsia, renal impairment and drugs. Prompt diagnosis and therapy is critical to ensure resolution of the neurological disability. Some cases have been reported in association with the increased use of antineoplastic agents in cancer patients. We report the case of a 62-year-old man who was diagnosed with RPLS after receiving carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy for lung cancer. This case appears to be the first recognized association of RPLS with this regimen.Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(8):911-5. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neuro-radiological syndrome characterized by seizures, altered level of consciousness and visual disturbance. PRES is associated with hyperintense lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) most commonly seen in the posterior regions. In most cases symptoms and radiological lesions are reversible. The aims of this article are: (i) to review the literature for all cases involving oxaliplatin, fluoropyrimidine and bevacizumab and (ii) highlight the increasing number of cases attributed to anti-neoplastic agents. An in-depth literature review was conducted by utilizing Pubmed's MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. We found that there have been nine cases of PRES associated with oxaliplatin or fluoropyrimidine therapy; five cases also involved therapy with bevacizumab. Eight of the nine patients made a full recovery with a complete resolution of MRI changes. This is the first Australian case of PRES following treatment with oxaliplatin and a fluoropyrimidine and only the second case reported in which the patient did not recover despite appropriate medical management. It appears that PRES maybe more commonly associated with multi-agent therapies and although reversible in most cases, PRES may result in adverse outcomes despite rapid intervention.Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2012; 8(2):115-22. · 0.91 Impact Factor