Exercise improves body fat, lean mass, and bone mass in breast cancer survivors.

Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 4.39). 09/2009; 17(8):1534-41. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.18
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Registry and randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 37) or usual care (n = 38) group. The exercise group participated in 150 min/week of supervised gym- and home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. The usual care group was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. Body composition was assessed at baseline and 6-months through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) by one radiologist blinded to the intervention group of the participants. On an average, exercisers increased moderate-intensity aerobic exercise by 129 min/week over and above baseline levels compared with 45 min/week among usual care participants (P < 0.001). Exercisers experienced decreases in percent body fat (P = 0.0022) and increases in lean mass (P = 0.047) compared with increases in body fat and decreases in lean mass in usual care participants. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also maintained among exercisers compared with a loss among usual care participants (P = 0.043). In summary, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, produces favorable changes in body composition that may improve breast cancer prognosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Cancer cachexia is a multi-factorial syndrome characterised by an ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass, with or without a loss of fat mass, which leads to progressive functional impairment. Physical exercise may attenuate the effects of cancer cachexia via several mechanisms, including the modulation of muscle metabolism, insulin sensitivity and levels of inflammation. Objectives The primary objective was to determine the effects of exercise, compared to usual care or no treatment, on lean body mass, the main biomarker of cachexia, in adults with cancer. Secondary objectives, subject to the availability of data, were to examine the acceptability and safety of exercise in this setting and to compare effects according to the characteristics of the exercise intervention or patient population. Search methods We searched the databases CENTRAL (Issue 6, 2014) , MEDLINE (1946 to June 2014), EMBASE (1974 to June 2014), DARE and HTA (Issue 6, 2014), ISI Web of Science (1900 to June 2014), LILACS (1985 to 28 June 2014), PEDro (inception to 28 June 2014), SciVerse SCOPUS (inception to 28 June 2014), Biosis Previews PreMEDLINE (1969 to June 2014) and Open Grey (inception to 28 June 2014). We also searched for ongoing studies, checked reference lists and contacted experts to seek potentially relevant research. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults meeting the clinical criteria for cancer cachexia comparing a programme of exercise as a sole or adjunct intervention to no treatment or an active control. We imposed no language restriction. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed titles and abstracts of articles for relevance and extracted data on study design, participants, interventions and outcomes from potentially relevant articles. Main results We screened 3154 individual references, of which we removed 3138 after title screening and read 16 in full. We found no trials that met the inclusion criteria. Authors' conclusions There is insufficient evidence to determine the safety and effectiveness of exercise for patients with cancer cachexia. Randomised controlled trials (i.e., preferably parallel-group or cluster-randomised trials) are required to test the effectiveness of exercise in this group. There are ongoing studies on the topic, so we will update this review to incorporate the findings.
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    ABSTRACT: Adverse health outcomes are often seen in breast cancer survivors due to prolonged treatment with side effects such as loss of energy and lack of physical strength. Physical activity (PA) has been proposed as an adequate intervention for women with breast cancer. Therefore, this review summarizes the effects of physical activity on breast cancer survivors after diagnosis. We searched electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar for articles published between January 1980 and May 2013. We included a variety of studies such as randomized controlled trials, pilot studies, and clinical trials. We reviewed these studies for three major outcomes: changes in breast cancer mortality, physiological functions, and metabolic biomarkers. Of 127 studies, 33 studies were selected as eligible studies. These studies included physical activities of varying type, duration, frequency, and intensity (e.g., aerobic and resistance training) and examined changes in three major outcomes among breast cancer survivors. Many of the studies suggest that breast cancer survivors benefit from engaging in physical activity, but some studies were limited in their ability to provide adequate evidence due to relatively small sample sizes, short intervention periods, or high attrition. Based on epidemiological evidence, recent studies demonstrated that those breast cancer survivors who engaged in physical activity significantly lowered their risk of breast cancer mortality and improved their physiological and immune functions. Some studies demonstrated changes in metabolic biomarkers such as insulin and insulin-like growth factors. However, further investigation is required to support these findings because these results are not consistent.
    09/2013; 18(3):193-200. DOI:10.15430/JCP.2013.18.3.193
  • Cancer Nursing 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/NCC.0000000000000122 · 1.93 Impact Factor

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