Article

Exercise improves body fat, lean mass, and bone mass in breast cancer survivors.

Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.92). 09/2009; 17(8):1534-41. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.18
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Given the negative effects of a breast cancer diagnosis and its treatments on body weight and bone mass, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention vs. usual care on body composition in breast cancer survivors. Secondary aims were to examine the effects stratified by important prognostic and physiologic variables. Seventy-five physically inactive postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were recruited through the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Registry and randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 37) or usual care (n = 38) group. The exercise group participated in 150 min/week of supervised gym- and home-based moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. The usual care group was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. Body composition was assessed at baseline and 6-months through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) by one radiologist blinded to the intervention group of the participants. On an average, exercisers increased moderate-intensity aerobic exercise by 129 min/week over and above baseline levels compared with 45 min/week among usual care participants (P < 0.001). Exercisers experienced decreases in percent body fat (P = 0.0022) and increases in lean mass (P = 0.047) compared with increases in body fat and decreases in lean mass in usual care participants. Bone mineral density (BMD) was also maintained among exercisers compared with a loss among usual care participants (P = 0.043). In summary, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, produces favorable changes in body composition that may improve breast cancer prognosis.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
111 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss of lean body mass (LBM) is a common occurrence after treatment for breast cancer and is related to deleterious metabolic health outcomes [Clin Oncol, 22(4):281-288, 2010; Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 34(5):950-956, 2009]. The aim of this research is to determine the effectiveness of long chain omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3s) and exercise training alone, or in combination, in addressing LBM loss in breast cancer survivors.Methods/design: A total of 153 women who have completed treatment for breast cancer in the last 12 months, with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 20 to 35kg/m2, will be randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: 3g/d LCn-3s (LC), a 12-week nutrition and exercise education program plus olive oil (P-LC) or the education program plus LCn-3s (E-LC). Participants randomised to the education groups will be blinded to treatment, and will receive either olive oil placebo (P) or LCn-3 provision, while the LC group will be open label. The education program includes nine 60-75min sessions over 12 weeks that will involve breast cancer specific healthy eating advice, plus a supervised exercise session run as a resistance exercise circuit. They will also be advised to conduct the resistance training and aerobic training 5 to 7 days per week collectively. Outcome measures will be taken at baseline, 12-weeks and 24-weeks. The primary outcome is % change in LBM as measured by the air displacement plethysmograhy. Secondary outcomes include quality of life (FACT-B + 4) and inflammation (C-Reactive protein: CRP). Additional measures taken will be erythrocyte fatty acid analysis, fatigue, physical activity, menopausal symptoms, dietary intake, joint pain and function indices. This research will provide the first insight into the efficacy of LCn-3s alone or in combination with exercise in breast cancer survivors with regards to LBM and quality of life. In addition, this study is designed to improve evidence-based dietetic practice, and how specific dietary prescription may link with appropriate exercise interventions.Trials registration: ACTRN12610001005044; and World Health Organisation Universal trial number: U1111-1116-8520.
    BMC Cancer 04/2014; 14(1):264. · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diet and exercise interventions for cancer survivors result in health benefits; however, few studies have examined health outcomes in relation to adherence. We examined associations between adherence to components of a diet-exercise intervention and survivors' physical and mental health. A randomized controlled trial tested a telephone and mailed print intervention among 641 older, overweight, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Dietary and exercise behaviors were assessed at 14 time points throughout the year-long intervention; health outcomes were examined postintervention. Telephone session attendance had significant indirect relationships with health outcomes through intervention-period exercise and dietary behavior. Attendance showed positive indirect relationships with physical function (β = 0.11, p < 0.05), basic and advanced lower extremity function (β = 0.10, p < 0.05/β = 0.09, p < 0.05), and mental health (β = 0.05, p < 0.05), and a negative indirect relationship with body mass index (β = -0.06, p < 0.05). Session attendance is vital in facilitating improvement in health behaviors and attendant outcomes (Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00303875).
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 03/2014; · 4.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of exercise training the past 25 years on major physiological-psychological outcomes studied thus far in this patient population. PubMed, MedlinePlus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Scorpus, and Google Scholar were searched from September to November 2013 to identify exercise training studies that used objective measurements of fitness and/or patient reported outcomes assessed pre and post-exercise training with statistical analyses performed in at least one of the following outcome measurements: Cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, fatigue, depression, and overall quality of life. Five reviewers independently identified the studies that met the criteria for the review and discrepancies were resolved by consensus among all authors. Fifty-one studies were included in this review with 5 from the period between 1989-1999, 11 from 2000-2006, and 35 from 2007-2013. The evolution of study designs changed from aerobic only exercise training interventions (1989-1999), to a combination of aerobic and resistance training (2000-2006), to studies including an arm of resistance training or examining the effects of resistance training as the main mode of exercise (2007-2013). Overall, the benefits of exercise showed improvements in cardiorespiratory function, body composition, strength, and patient reported outcomes including fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Exercise training appears to be safe for most breast cancer patients and improvements in physiological, psychological, and functional parameters can be attained with regular participation in moderate intensity exercise.
    World journal of clinical oncology. 05/2014; 5(2):177-90.

Full-text

View
1 Download
Available from