CalDAG-GEFI is at the nexus of calcium-dependent platelet activation.
ABSTRACT The importance of the second messengers calcium (Ca(2+)) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in platelet signal transduction was established more than 30 years ago. Whereas protein kinase C (PKC) family members were discovered as the targets of DAG, little is known about the molecular identity of the main Ca(2+) sensor(s). We here identify Ca(2+) and DAG-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor I (CalDAG-GEFI) as a critical molecule in Ca(2+)-dependent platelet activation. CalDAG-GEFI, through activation of the small GTPase Rap1, directly triggers integrin activation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-dependent thromboxane A(2) (TxA(2)) release. CalDAG-GEFI-dependent TxA(2) generation provides crucial feedback for PKC activation and granule release, particularly at threshold agonist concentrations. PKC/P2Y12 signaling in turn mediates a second wave of Rap1 activation, necessary for sustained platelet activation and thrombus stabilization. Our results lead to a revised model for platelet activation that establishes one molecule, CalDAG-GEFI, at the nexus of Ca(2+)-induced integrin activation, TxA(2) generation, and granule release. The preferential activation of CalDAG-GEFI over PKC downstream of phospholipase C activation, and the different kinetics of CalDAG-GEFI- and PKC/P2Y12-mediated Rap1 activation demonstrate an unexpected complexity to the platelet activation process, and they challenge the current model that DAG/PKC-dependent signaling events are crucial for the initiation of platelet adhesion.
- SourceAvailable from: Ewelina M Golebiewska[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Platelet secretion not only drives thrombosis and hemostasis, but also mediates a variety of other physiological and pathological processes. The ubiquitous SNARE machinery and a number of accessory proteins have been implicated in regulating secretion in platelets. Although several platelets SNAREs have been identified, further members of the SNARE family may be needed to fine-tune platelet secretion. In this study we identified expression of the t-SNARE syntaxin 8 (STX8) (Qc SNARE) in mouse and human platelets. In mouse studies, whereas STX8 was not essential for α-granule or lysosome secretion, Stx8-/- platelets showed a significant defect in dense granule secretion in response to thrombin and CRP. This was most pronounced at intermediate concentrations of agonists. They also showed an aggregation defect that could be rescued with exogenous ADP and increased embolization in Stx8-/- mice in vivo consistent with an important autocrine and paracrine role for ADP in aggregation and thrombus stabilization. STX8 therefore specifically contributes to dense granule secretion and represents another member of a growing family of genes that play distinct roles in regulating granule release from platelets and thus platelet function in thrombosis and hemostasis. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CalDAG-GEFI is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, which actives small GTPase Rap1 and plays an important role in platelet aggregation. Our previous study has shown that CalDAG-GEFI contains redox-sensitive thiols, and its function can be inhibited by thiol modification. In the present study, the effect of CLL2-1, a 1,4-phenanthrenequinone, on CalDAG-GEFI and platelet functions was investigated. In human platelets, CLL2-1 prevented platelet aggregation caused by various stimulators. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that CLL2-1 inhibited GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin secretion. Moreover, CLL2-1 prevented Rap1 activation caused by thrombin, the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187, and the diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, while only slightly inhibited thrombin-induced increases in [Ca(2+)]i and did not inhibit protein kinase C activation. Western blots after reducing SDS-PAGE showed that treatment of either platelets or platelet lysates with CLL2-1 led to a decrease of monomeric CalDAG-GEFI and appearance of cross-linked oligomers of CalDAG-GEFI, and these effects were inhibited by pretreatment of platelets or lysates with thiol reducing agents prior to the addition of CLL2-1, indicating thiol modification of CalDAG-GEFI by CLL2-1. Furthermore, the thiol reducing agents also prevented the inhibitory effect of CLL2-1 on Rap1 activation, GPIIb/IIIa activation, and platelet aggregation. In CalDAG-GEFI-overexpressing human embryonic kidney 293T cells, CLL2-1 also inhibited CalDAG-GEFI-mediated Rap1 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that the antiplatelet effect of CLL2-1 is due to, at least in part, inhibition of CalDAG-GEFI-mediated Rap1 activation, and provide the basis for development of novel antiplatelet drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 10/2014; 78C:101-110. · 5.71 Impact Factor
- Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2011; 16(1):2144. · 4.25 Impact Factor