Association of posttraumatic stress disorder with low-grade elevation of C-reactive protein: evidence from the general population.
ABSTRACT Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with several somatic diseases, and low-grade inflammation may be one psychobiological mechanism mediating this relationship. We assessed the association between PTSD and elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP; >3mg/L) in a large general population sample.
About 3049 adults living in the community were included in the present study. CRP, lipoproteins and triglycerides were determined. Participants were also examined with regard to blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, comorbid somatic diseases, medication, daily alcohol intake, and depression.
PTSD was diagnosed in 55 participants (1.8%), and low-grade inflammation (i.e. CRP >3mg/L) was found in 701 subjects (23.0%). PTSD positive participants had significantly higher odds for elevated CRP values than those without PTSD (OR=2.27; 95% CI: 1.32-3.93). Even after adjusting for sex, age, other sociodemographic factors, BMI, blood pressure, lipoproteins and triglycerides, physical activity, comorbid somatic diseases, daily alcohol intake, and trauma exposure, there were almost twofold higher odds for elevated CRP levels in participants with PTSD compared to those without PTSD (OR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.05-3.35).
Our findings suggest a close relationship between PTSD and low-grade inflammation possibly representing one psychobiological pathway from PTSD to poor physical health, particularly with respect to cardiovascular and pulmonary disease as well as diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is of great concern in veterans. PTSD usually occurs after a person is exposed to death, threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Active duty soldiers deployed to war zones are at risk for PTSD. Psychoneuroimmunological theory predicts that PTSD, depression, and stress can lead to low-grade, chronic inflammation. We asked whether there were relationships between PTSD symptoms and chronic stress, depression and inflammation in active duty U.S. soldiers. We enrolled 52 active duty enlisted and reservist soldiers in a cross-sectional study while they participated in a week of military training in fall 2011. They completed a demographic questionnaire, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Combat Exposure Scale, and the PTSD symptom Checklist-Military version (PCL-M). Blood samples were taken for analysis of cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP). Hair samples shaved from the forearm were measured for cortisol. Of the soldiers, 11 had PCL-M scores in the moderate to severe range. Regression analysis demonstrated that depression and war zone deployment were strong predictors of PTSD symptoms. CRP and hair cortisol were correlated with each other and with depression and PTSD symptoms. These results suggest relationships among war zone deployment, depression, and PTSD. Chronic stress associated with depression, PTSD, and war zone experiences may be related to inflammation in active duty soldiers.Biological Research for Nursing 09/2014; DOI:10.1177/1099800414544949 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abuse is considered to have a place in the etiology of various psychiatric disorders. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is one of the psychiatric disorders for which abuse could be an etiologic factor; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between abuse and PMDD. In this study, our aim was to investigate childhood abuse in patients with PMDD and compare them with healthy female subjects. This cross-sectional study included 70 women with PMDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were admitted to the outpatient psychiatry clinic of Ankara Yenimahalle State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2012 and December 2013. Additionally, 78 healthy controls were included in the study. Sociodemographic, familial, and reproductive period characteristics of the women were recorded. All subjects were administered the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Among the sociodemographic characteristics, being a university graduate (76.9%) and being a public servant (70.5%) were significantly higher in the healthy control group (P = .01 and P = .01, respectively). A family history of PMDD (31.4%), a history of postpartum psychiatric disorders (11.4%), and a history of attempted suicide (7.1%) were higher in the PMDD group compared with the healthy control group (P = .001, P = .003, and P = .024, respectively). Significant differences were also found between PMDD and healthy controls in PMSS score (P ≤ .001), CTQ total scores (P = .002), and subscale scores including emotional abuse and emotional neglect (P = .004), physical abuse (P = .009), and sexual abuse (P = .012). To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate associations between PMDD and childhood abuse from Turkey. More comprehensive studies on this topic with larger sample sizes are required to enrich the literature and enable practitioners to be more effective in clinical practice.07/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.4088/PCC.14m01647
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ABSTRACT: A novel immunoassay (IA) has been developed for human C-reactive protein (CRP), an important biomarker and tissue preserving factor for infection and inflammation. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) were admixed and covalently attached to a polystyrene based-microtiter plate (MTP), pretreated with KOH. The resulting surface served as a stable layer for the covalent attachment of the anti-human CRP antibody. The IA procedure was based on the one-step kinetics-based sandwich IA employing a minimum number of process steps, whereas the enzymatic reaction solution was monitored by a smartphone-based colorimetric reader. With a limit of detection and a limit of quantification of 0.07 ng mL−1 and 0.9 ng mL−1, it precisely detected CRP spiked in diluted human whole blood and plasma as well as the CRP levels in clinical plasma samples. The results obtained for “real-world” patient samples agreed well with those of the conventional immunosorbent assay and the clinically-accredited analyzer-based IA. The antibody-bound GNP-functionalized MTPs retained its original activity after 6 weeks of storage in 0.1 M PBS, pH 7.4 at 4 °C.Biosensors & Bioelectronics 11/2014; 66. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2014.11.017 · 6.45 Impact Factor