Article

Influenza in immunosuppressed populations: a review of infection frequency, morbidity, mortality, and vaccine responses.

Pulmonary Section, Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 19.45). 09/2009; 9(8):493-504. DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70175-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Patients that are immunosuppressed might be at risk of serious influenza-associated complications. As a result, multiple guidelines recommend influenza vaccination for patients infected with HIV, who have received solid-organ transplants, who have received haemopoietic stem-cell transplants, and patients on haemodialysis. However, immunosuppression might also limit vaccine responses. To better inform policy, we reviewed the published work relevant to incidence, outcomes, and prevention of influenza infection in these patients, and in patients being treated chemotherapy and with systemic corticosteroids. Available data suggest that most immunosuppressed populations are indeed at higher risk of influenza-associated complications, have a general trend toward impaired humoral vaccine responses (although these data are mixed), and can be safely vaccinated--although longitudinal data are largely lacking. Randomised clinical trial data were limited to one study of HIV-infected patients with high vaccine efficacy. Better trial data would inform vaccination recommendations on the basis of efficacy and cost in these at-risk populations.

0 Followers
 · 
130 Views
  • Source
    The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC 03/2015; 26(2):201-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jana.2014.11.006 · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pregnant women and infants are at high risk for complications, hospitalization, and death due to influenza. It is well-established that influenza vaccination during pregnancy reduces rates and severity of illness in women overall. Maternal vaccination also confers antibody protection to infants via both transplacental transfer and breast milk. However, as in the general population, a relatively high proportion of pregnant women and their infants do not achieve protective antibody levels against influenza virus following maternal vaccination. Behavioral factors, particularly maternal weight and stress exposure, may affect initial maternal antibody responses, maintenance of antibody levels over time (i.e., across pregnancy), as well as the efficiency of transplacental antibody transfer to the fetus. Conversely, behavioral interventions including acute exercise and stress reduction can enhance immune protection following vaccination. Such behavioral interventions are particularly appealing in pregnancy because they are safe and non-invasive. The identification of individual risk factors for poor responses to vaccines and the application of appropriate interventions represent important steps towards personalized health care.
    Vaccine 04/2014; 32(25). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.03.075 · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with malignancies are considered to be at increased risk of acquiring influenza. Because of higher complication and case fatality rates, preventive measures such as vaccination are of great interest. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability, tolerability and immunogenicity of an adjuvant-free whole-virion pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in cancer patients with ongoing anticancer treatment during a 'pandemic situation'. Adult patients with hematologic malignancies or solid tumors and concurrent cytotoxic, targeted, and/or hormone therapy were recruited during the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in 2009/2010 and were offered free vaccine. Antibody titers were measured using virus-specific hemagglutination inhibition assay and ELISA. Among 285 patients with solid tumors who were offered vaccination during their therapy, 260 (91.2%) declined and 25 (8.8%) accepted. Seventeen patients with hematologic malignancies were also vaccinated during therapy; 23 healthy individuals served as a control group. When measured using hemagglutination-inhibition assays, rates of seroprotection, seroconversion, and geometric mean titer ratios after the second vaccination were 96%, 70%, and 4.1 respectively among the healthy individuals, 90%, 52%, and 4.3 among patients with solid tumors, and 67%, 13%, and 1.5 among patients with hematologic malignancies during therapy (P<0.05). When measured using ELISA, seropositivity differed significantly among the three groups after the second vaccination: healthy individuals 74%, patients with solid tumors 57%, those with hematologic malignancies 13% (P<0.001). The vaccine was well tolerated. Our results demonstrate a low uptake of the well tolerated adjuvant-free influenza A (H1N1) vaccine by cancer patients receiving anticancer treatment during the pandemic of 2009/2010. Among the vaccinated patients, the immune response was weaker than that in healthy individuals. The immune response in patients with hematological malignancies was low. Two doses of vaccine are needed in these immunosuppressed patients.
    Vaccine 09/2012; 30(48). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.09.005 · 3.49 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from