Effects of simulated microgravity on proliferation and chemosensitivity in malignant glioma cells.
ABSTRACT A three-dimensional (3D) clinostat is a device for generating multidirectional G force, resulting in an environment with an average of 10(-3)G. We cultured human malignant glioma cell lines in a 3D-clinostat (CL group) and examined the growth properties and chemosensitivity of the cells compared to cells cultured under normal 1G conditions (C group). The growth rate was significantly inhibited in the CL group, but without cell cycle change. Mitochondrial activity was also inhibited in the CL group. Thus, inhibition of malignant glioma proliferation occurred that could be attributed to deceleration of mitosis. Chemosensitivity to cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), CDDP) in the CL group was significantly enhanced compared to the C group. This method has significant potential as a treatment of malignant gliomas and a tool for understanding developmental biology.
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ABSTRACT: There have been many studies on the biological effects of simulated microgravity (SMG) on differentiated cells or adult stem cells. However, there has been no systematic study on the effects of SMG on embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we investigated various effects (including cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, cell differentiation, cell adhesion, apoptosis, genomic integrity and DNA damage repair) of SMG on mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Mouse ES cells cultured under SMG condition had a significantly reduced total cell number compared with cells cultured under 1 g gravity (1G) condition. However, there was no significant difference in cell cycle distribution between SMG and 1G culture conditions, indicating that cell proliferation was not impaired significantly by SMG and was not a major factor contributing to the total cell number reduction. In contrast, a lower adhesion rate cultured under SMG condition contributed to the lower cell number in SMG. Our results also revealed that SMG alone could not induce DNA damage in mES cells while it could affect the repair of radiation-induced DNA lesions of mES cells. Taken together, mES cells were sensitive to SMG and the major alterations in cellular events were cell number expansion, adhesion rate decrease, increased apoptosis and delayed DNA repair progression, which are distinct from the responses of other types of cells to SMG.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29214. · 4.09 Impact Factor