Disparities in stroke rehabilitation: results of a study in an integrated health system in northern California.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Napa Solano Service Area, and Research and Training, Kaiser Foundation Rehabilitation Center, Vallejo, CA 94589, USA.
PM&R (Impact Factor: 1.66). 02/2009; 1(1):29-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2008.10.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether there are disparities in postacute stroke rehabilitation based on type of stroke, race/ethnicity, sex/gender, age, socioeconomic status, geographic region, or service area referral patterns in a large integrated health system with multiple levels of care.
Cohort study tracking rehabilitation services for 365 days after acute hospitalization for a first stroke.
The Northern California Kaiser Permanente Health System (approximately 3.3 million membership population)
A total of 11,119 patients hospitalized for acute stroke from 1996 to 2003. The cohort includes patients discharged from acute care after a stroke. Postacute care rehabilitation services were evaluated according to the level of care ever-received within the 365 days after discharge from acute care, including inpatient rehabilitation hospital (IRH), skilled nursing facility (SNF), home health and outpatient, or no rehabilitation services.
Not applicable.
Service delivery.
Patients discharged to an IRH had longer lengths of stay in acute care. Patients with hemorrhagic stroke were less likely to be treated in an IRH. Patients whose highest level of rehabilitation was SNF were older and more likely to be women. After adjusting for age and other covariates, women were less likely to go to an IRH than men. Asian and black patients were more likely than white patients to be treated in an IRH or SNF. Also more likely to go to an IRH were patients from higher socioeconomic groups, from urban areas, and from geographic areas close to the regional rehabilitation hospital.
These results suggest variation in care delivery and extent of postacute care based on differences in patient demographics and geographic factors. Results also varied over time. Some minority populations in this cohort appeared to be more likely to receive IRH care, possibly because of disease severity, family support systems, cultural factors, or differences in referral patterns.

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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. Previous studies have shown socioeconomic disparities in imaging utilization for both acute and chronic diseases. We studied a nationwide database to determine whether insurance-based disparities exist in the utilization of imaging for acute ischemic stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Inpatients with a primary diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke from November 2005 through December 2011 were identified from the Perspective database. Patients were stratified into four groups according to insurance status as follows: uninsured, Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance. Utilization rates of head CT, perfusion CT, head MRI, noninvasive head angiography (including head CT angiography [CTA] and head MR angiography [MRA]), noninvasive neck angiography (including neck CTA and neck MRA), carotid ultrasound, and echocardiography were compared using a chi-square test. A multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for potential confounding variables was fit to determine the association between insurance status and imaging utilization. RESULTS. A total of 210,212 patients were included in this study: 10,396 patients (5.0%) were uninsured, 14,243 patients (6.8%) had Medicaid, 153,209 patients (72.9%) had Medicare, and 32,364 patients (15.4%) had private insurance. Even after we had controlled for confounding variables, significant disparities existed in imaging utilization. Compared with patients with private insurance, uninsured patients had significantly lower odds of noninvasive head angiography (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.74-0.81, p < 0.0001), neck angiography (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.76-0.83, p < 0.0001), and head MRI (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.74-0.81, p < 0.0001). The same was true for Medicaid and Medicare patients. CONCLUSION. Disparities exist in the utilization of noninvasive head and neck imaging, MRI, and echocardiography for patients with acute ischemic stroke based on patient insurance status. More research is needed to understand these disparities.
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    Rehabilitation Nursing. 01/2014; 39(1).
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the satisfaction of the stroke inpatients and their caregivers in Rehabilitation Service and to analyze the effectiveness, social risk, and discharge destination. Prospective longitudinal cohort multicenter study. An analysis was made of the social risk (Gijón Scale), co-morbidity (Charlson Index), disability (Barthel Index), effectiveness of the rehabilitation treatment, satisfaction (Pound Questionnaire) and discharge destination of 241 patients. An evaluation was also made on 119 caregivers 6 months post-stroke, recording age, family relationship, time care-giving, satisfaction with the information/training, and accessibility to the rehabilitation team. The patient profile is a 71 year-old male, with low/intermediate social risk, high co-morbidity and total/severe dependence, with 27.1% living alone. Almost all (96.6%) of the patients claimed to be satisfied/very satisfied with the treatment, with satisfaction with the recovery being lower (80.3%). The effectiveness was 32.5±20.4. Home was the discharge destination of 81.7% of the patients.The average age of the caregivers was 58.8±12.3 years, and 73.9% were women. The time dedicated to care-giving was over 6hours per day in the 62% of the cases. Being satisfied/very satisfied with the received information was recorded by 89.9% of the caregivers. Los pacientes ingresados para tratamiento rehabilitador tras un ictus obtienen una ganancia funcional significativa durante su hospitalización y regresan a su domicilio en la mayoría de casos. Patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation achieve significant functional gain during hospitalization and return to their homes in most cases. The satisfaction with the rehabilitation treatment and received information is high. The training of the caregiver is an aspect that needs improving.
    Revista de calidad asistencial: organo de la Sociedad Española de Calidad Asistencial 04/2014;

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