High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: comparative clinicopathological study of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) are high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. In order to clarify the similarities and differences between these cancers, 22 cases each of LCNEC and SCLC were collected and a comparative pathological study was carried out. First, their clinicopathological characteristics were confirmed, which were very similar to those previously reported. The 5 year survival rate of LCNEC and SCLC patients was 38.3% and 29.7%, respectively. The morphological characteristics of LCNEC and SCLC were then reviewed with regard to the morphology previously used to differentiate these cancers. As a result, many morphological indicators, such as tumor cell size, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear molding, rosette formation, prominent nucleoli and karyolysis were confirmed to be significant indicators for distinguishing LCNEC from SCLC. On comparative immunohistochemistry, LCNEC had significantly high staining scores for the expression of keratin 7 and 18, E- and P-cadherins, beta-catenin, villin 1, retinoblastoma protein (pRB), c-met and alpha-enolase. These results might reflect the differentiation or deviation of LCNEC toward an epithelial nature irrespective of neuroendocrine tumor lineage. In conclusion, the present comparative study of LCNEC and SCLC defined the similarities and differences between these cancers, and showed the biologically and clinicopathologically overlapping spectrum of the tumor lineage.
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ABSTRACT: Discriminating small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) from large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) rests on morphological criteria, and reproducibility has been shown to be poor. We aimed to identify immunohistochemical markers to assist this diagnosis. Gene expression profiling on laser captured frozen tumour samples from eight SCLC and eight LCNEC tumours identified a total of 888 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 23 of which were validated by qRT-PCR. Antibodies to four selected gene products were then evaluated as immunohistochemical markers on a cohort of 173 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) SCLC/LCNEC tumour samples, including 26 indeterminate tumours without a consensus diagnosis. Three markers, CDX2, VIL1 and BAI3, gave significantly different results in the two tumour types (P < 0.0001): CDX2 and VIL1 in combination (either marker positive) showed sensitivity and specificity of 81% for LCNEC while BAI3 showed 89% sensitivity and 75% specificity for SCLC. Of the 26 indeterminate tumours 15 (58%) showed an immunophenotype suggesting either SCLC or LCNEC, eight (31%) showed staining of both tumour types, and three (11%) were negative for all markers. A panel of three markers, BAI3, CDX2 and VIL1, is a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of these tumour types.Histopathology 11/2013; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma Symptoms: Back pain Medication: - Clinical Procedure: Vertebroplasty Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. An atypical presentation of large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was diagnosed from a metastatic nodule on the chest wall. The patient was a 60-year-old female who presented with intractable back pain with an MRI showing an L3 compression fracture and multiple lesions in L3, L5, and the pelvis. The patient had a 40-pack-year smoking history. On admission, a small, non-tender nodule was noted under her left breast on the chest wall. CT and PET scan confirmed diffuse metastases in the lumbar spine, brain, lung, liver, and pancreas, without knowing the primary site. The patient underwent L3 vertebroplasty and removal of the nodule on the chest wall. The pathology report of the nodule showed large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). Immunohistochemical stains were positive for cytokeratin AE 1/3, TTF-1, CD56, Synaptophysin, and chromogranin. The stains were negative for CK7, Napsin, cytokeratin 20, GATA-3, mammaglobin, and CEA. A pathology diagnosis of metastatic LCNEC was made, with the lung as the most likely original site. Treatment consisted of pain control through an intra-thecal pump and whole brain radiation followed by systemic chemotherapy. This case elucidates the unusual cutaneous metastatic site for LCNECs, which was biopsied to confirm the diagnosis. This is the first case of LCNEC diagnosed by a cutaneous metastasis. In conclusion, it is possible to diagnose LCNEC of the lung at a distant metastatic site with careful histological and immunohistochemical examination, which can spare patients from more harmful biopsies.The American journal of case reports. 01/2014; 15:97-102.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have a prognostic spectrum including typical carcinoid (TC), atypical carcinoid (AC), small cell carcinoma (SCLC), and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC). We conducted a retrospective study to compare their clinicopathological characteristics, immunophenotype, preoperative biopsy and frozen section diagnoses, and prognosis. Ninety cases of surgically treated pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors were studied. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies to chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and CD56. The preoperative biopsy and frozen section diagnoses were reviewed. The 5-year survival rates for TC, AC, SCLC, and LCNEC were 96.6%, 66.7%, 42.4%, and 38.0%, respectively. T stage and pleural status correlated with outcome of SCLC and LCNEC, but N-stage and overall TNM stage did not. In preoperative biopsy, accurate diagnosis was achieved in 5 of 11 TC, 2 of 4 AC, 6 of 15 SCLC, and 0 of 5 LCNEC cases. Using frozen sections, accurate diagnosis was achieved in 8 of 12 TC, 2 of 11 SCLC, and 0 of 11 LCNEC cases. LCNEC was the most difficult to diagnose using either preoperative biopsy or frozen sections. T stage and pleural status can predict outcome of SCLC and LCNEC. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Surgical Oncology 12/2013; · 2.64 Impact Factor