High-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung: comparative clinicopathological study of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and small cell lung carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) are high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas. In order to clarify the similarities and differences between these cancers, 22 cases each of LCNEC and SCLC were collected and a comparative pathological study was carried out. First, their clinicopathological characteristics were confirmed, which were very similar to those previously reported. The 5 year survival rate of LCNEC and SCLC patients was 38.3% and 29.7%, respectively. The morphological characteristics of LCNEC and SCLC were then reviewed with regard to the morphology previously used to differentiate these cancers. As a result, many morphological indicators, such as tumor cell size, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear molding, rosette formation, prominent nucleoli and karyolysis were confirmed to be significant indicators for distinguishing LCNEC from SCLC. On comparative immunohistochemistry, LCNEC had significantly high staining scores for the expression of keratin 7 and 18, E- and P-cadherins, beta-catenin, villin 1, retinoblastoma protein (pRB), c-met and alpha-enolase. These results might reflect the differentiation or deviation of LCNEC toward an epithelial nature irrespective of neuroendocrine tumor lineage. In conclusion, the present comparative study of LCNEC and SCLC defined the similarities and differences between these cancers, and showed the biologically and clinicopathologically overlapping spectrum of the tumor lineage.
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ABSTRACT: The c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase and its ligand HGF (hepatocyte growth factor) have been shown to be involved in angiogenesis, cellular motility, growth, invasion, and differentiation. The role of c-Met/HGF axis in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has not been reported previously. We have determined the expression of p170(c-Met) precursor and p140(c-Met) beta-chain in seven SCLC cell lines by immunoblotting. We used the SCLC cell line H69, which expressed an abundant amount of c-Met to study the function and downstream effects of c-Met activation. Stimulation of H69 cells with HGF (40 ng/ml, 6-h stimulation) significantly altered cell motility of the SCLC cells with increased formation of filopodia and membrane ruffling, characterized as membrane blebbing, as well as increased migration of the cellular clusters were seen. We have further studied the signal transduction pathways of HGF/c-Met in the H69 cell line. The stimulation of H69 with HGF (40 ng/ml, >24 h, maximal at 1 h) increased the amount of reactive oxygen species formed by 34%. HGF stimulation (40 ng/ml, 7.5-min stimulation) of H69 cells showed increased tyrosine phosphorylated bands identified at M(r) 68,000, 120,000-140,000, and 200,000. Some of these tyrosine-phosphorylated bands were identified as the focal adhesion proteins paxillin, FAK, PYK2, and the c-Met receptor itself. Phospho-specific antibodies show that tyrosines at amino acid (a.a.) 31 of paxillin, and autophosphorylation sites at a.a. 397 of p125FAK, and a.a. 402 of PYK2 are phosphorylated in response to HGF/c-Met signaling. We also demonstrate that the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin, which also affects c-Met, reduced the growth and viability of four of four SCLC cell lines by 25% to 85%, over a 72-h time period. Geldanamycin caused apoptosis of SCLC cells, as well as led to increased levels of Hsp70 but not Hsp90. These results demonstrate that c-Met/HGF pathway is functional in SCLC, and it would be useful to target this pathway toward novel therapy.Clinical Cancer Research 03/2002; 8(2):620-7. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The p16 protein (p16) is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that decelerates the cell cycle by inactivating the CDKs that phosphorylate retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Recent biological studies have revealed that p16 expression is markedly influenced by the status of Rb expression, and p16 overexpression has been demonstrated in cervical cancers because of functional inactivation of Rb by human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 protein. To clarify the relationship between p16 overexpression and HPV infection in cervical carcinogenesis, immunohistochemical analysis of p16 and detection of HPV by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction were performed on 139 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples of cervical and genital condylomatous and neoplastic lesions. Marked overexpression of p16 protein, ie, diffuse and strong immunostaining, was observed in all cervical cancers and preneoplastic lesions with infection by high- and intermediate-risk HPVs, ie, subtypes 16, 18, 31, 33, 52, and 58. Condylomata acuminata and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with infection by low-risk HPV such as HPV-6/11 showed focal and weak immunohistochemical staining for p16. Our results clearly showed that the mode of p16 expression in lesions with high- and intermediate-risk HPVs differed from its expression in lesions with low-risk HPVs and thus might be attributable to differences in functional inactivation of Rb protein by different HPVs.American Journal Of Pathology 01/1999; 153(6):1741-8. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell types of lung epithelia of mini pigs have been studied using a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against cytokeratins (CKs) and vimentin and three lectins before and after radiation-induced fibrosis. In normal tissues, CK18 specific antibodies reacted above all with type II alveolar epithelial cells, while CK7 and pan CK-specific antibodies stained the whole alveolar epithelium. In bronchial epithelial cells, CKs 7, 8, 18 and focally CKs 4 and 13 as well as vimentin were found. Cell specificity of the CK pattern was confirmed by double label immunofluorescence using type II cell-specific Maclura pomifera (MPA) lectin, type I cell specific Lycopersicon esculentum (LEA) lectin and capillary endothelium-binding Dolichos biflorus (DBA) lectin. In experimental pulmonary fibrosis, enhanced coexpression of CK and vimentin was observed in bronchial epithelium. Subtypes of alveolar epithelial cells were no longer easily distinguishable. CK18 was found to be expressed in the entire alveolar epithelium. The gradual loss of the normal alveolar epithelial marker, as seen by the binding of MPA to type I-like cells, of LEA to type II-like cells and the partial loss of MPA-binding to type II cells, was paralleled by the appearance of CK4, typical for squamous epithelia, and the occurrence of DBA-binding in epithelial cells. Implications of these results for general concepts of intermediate filament protein expression and lectin binding in the fibrotic process are discussed.Histochemistry 12/1993; 100(5):367-77.