Cancer Preventive Potential of Methanol Extracts of Hypsizigus marmoreus

Bioindustry Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup-si, Republic of Korea.
Journal of medicinal food (Impact Factor: 1.63). 07/2009; 12(3):493-500. DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2008.1050
Source: PubMed


Hypsizigus marmoreus has recently become a popular edible mushroom in Asia. Despite its extensive use, the underlying mechanisms of the anticarcinogenic effects on the initiation stage are not precisely known. Therefore, methanol extracts from H. marmoreus were prepared and then tested for antiproliferative effects in cancer cells and antimutagenic activities as well as mutagenic capacity using the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test. In addition, the effects on the phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, phase II detoxifying enzymes, and antioxidative activities were evaluated in livers from mice pretreated with methanol extracts from H. marmoreus and challenged with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). In the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, methanol extracts from H. marmoreus displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect against human hepatocarcinoma and colon carcinoma cells. However, equivalent doses did not induce mutagenicity when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 while exhibiting antimutagenicity against direct-acting and indirect-acting mutagens. Methanol extracts from H. marmoreus strongly decreased total cytochrome P450 and activity of ethoxyresorufin deethylase after B[a]P challenge. Further investigation revealed that methanol extracts from H. marmoreus decreased protein levels of cytochrome P450 IAI isozyme induced by B[a]P. Methanol extracts from H. marmoreus increased the content of glutathione and activity of glutathione S-transferase. This also induced the activity of quinone reductase, an enzyme well known to be anticarcinogenic. The results of the present study therefore demonstrated that methanol extracts from H. marmoreus may have antimutagenic effects, inhibiting the mutagenicity of some mutagens, particularly indirect-acting B[a]P. The mechanism of this antimutagenicity may be the induction of the activity of phase II enzymes, as well as the ability to reduce phase I metabolic-activating enzymes in mouse liver.

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    • "In the last two decades, a wide range of evidence from epidemiological and laboratory studies have demonstrated that some plants eaten whole, or some of their active principles taken in isolation, have substantial protective effects against human carcinogenesis and mutagenesis (Surh and Ferguson, 2003). Several plant extracts have proved to contain a wide variety of antimutagenic substances (Verschaeve et al., 2004; Scassellati- Sforzolini et al., 1999; Khader et al., 2010; Wongwattanasathien et al., 2010; Kaur et al., 1998, 2000, 2001, 2009) and some can prevent cancer (Nishino, 1998; Saleem et al., 2005; Chang et al., 2009; Hu et al., 2010; Inayat-Hussain et al., 2010). A. cadamba (Roxb.) "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate whether Chrysanthermum zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura (C. zawadskii) extracts has an inhibitory effect against the mutagenicity by cigarette smoke condensates (CSC). C. zawadskii was extracted with 70% ethanol and the yield was 18.5%. We further fractioned 70% ethanol extract sequentially to diethylether, chloroform, dichloromethane, and aqueous water, and gained the yield of 17.5%, 5.6%, 5.8%, 32.8% and 35.5%, respectively. In the Ames test, there was no mutagenic effect of crude extract and its solvent fractions up to 2 mg/plate toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 with or without S-9 mix metabolic activations. On the contrary, the crude extract showed an inhibitory activity against the mutagenicity of CSC in the presence of S-9 mix metabolic activation. Diethyl ether layer among five solvent fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity of diethyl ether fraction was also increased in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory rate was about 97.7% at the concentration of 1 mg/plate. In this study, we conclude that crude extract of C. zawadskii itself is potentially safe for mutagenicity, and the diethyl ether fraction has an inhibitory effect against the mutagenicity of CSC.
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