Cancer preventive potential of methanol extracts of Hypsizigus marmoreus.
ABSTRACT Hypsizigus marmoreus has recently become a popular edible mushroom in Asia. Despite its extensive use, the underlying mechanisms of the anticarcinogenic effects on the initiation stage are not precisely known. Therefore, methanol extracts from H. marmoreus were prepared and then tested for antiproliferative effects in cancer cells and antimutagenic activities as well as mutagenic capacity using the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test. In addition, the effects on the phase I drug metabolizing enzymes, phase II detoxifying enzymes, and antioxidative activities were evaluated in livers from mice pretreated with methanol extracts from H. marmoreus and challenged with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). In the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, methanol extracts from H. marmoreus displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect against human hepatocarcinoma and colon carcinoma cells. However, equivalent doses did not induce mutagenicity when tested with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 while exhibiting antimutagenicity against direct-acting and indirect-acting mutagens. Methanol extracts from H. marmoreus strongly decreased total cytochrome P450 and activity of ethoxyresorufin deethylase after B[a]P challenge. Further investigation revealed that methanol extracts from H. marmoreus decreased protein levels of cytochrome P450 IAI isozyme induced by B[a]P. Methanol extracts from H. marmoreus increased the content of glutathione and activity of glutathione S-transferase. This also induced the activity of quinone reductase, an enzyme well known to be anticarcinogenic. The results of the present study therefore demonstrated that methanol extracts from H. marmoreus may have antimutagenic effects, inhibiting the mutagenicity of some mutagens, particularly indirect-acting B[a]P. The mechanism of this antimutagenicity may be the induction of the activity of phase II enzymes, as well as the ability to reduce phase I metabolic-activating enzymes in mouse liver.
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ABSTRACT: The increasing commercial significance of natural polysaccharides for use in medicinal products is stimulating the development of efficient and easy scale-up techniques for polysaccharide purification. In this research, the crude polysaccharides from submerged cultivation broth of Hypsizigus marmoreus were purified using radial flow chromatography (RFC), and the antiproliferative activity of the purified fractions was evaluated in vitro. DEAE Sepharose CL-6B was selected to be packed in the RFC column based on its good resolution, physical stability, and low cost. Compared with axial flow chromatography (AFC), an efficient chromatographic process with significantly less time and buffer consumption but yielding higher polysaccharide recovery and resolution was established in RFC, which could clearly purify the crude polysaccharides into different fractions. An acceptable linear scale-up effect of RFC from 100 ml to 500 ml was successfully achieved without loss of resolution and enhancement of time consumption. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays in cell cultures indicated that the purified polysaccharide fractions possess moderate antiproliferative activities in three different human cancer cell lines, but have significantly lower cytotoxicity in normal human cell lines in vitro. Among the polysaccharide fractions, the main purified acidic fraction W-I could be considered as a novel potential antitumor agent candidate for several tumors, especially for human alveolar epithelial tumors. This research confirmed for the first time that RFC would be a new fast and efficient tool for purification of polysaccharides into different fractions, both at laboratory and commercial scales. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014Biotechnology Progress 05/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[α]P) was used to test the possible antimutagenic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima (SP) on male and female mice. SP was orally administered at 0, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of body weight to animals of both sexes for 2 weeks before starting the B[α]P (intraperitoneal injection) at 125 mg/kg of body weight for 5 consecutive days. For the male dominant lethal test, each male was caged with two untreated females per week for 3 weeks. For the female dominant lethal test, each female was caged for 1 week with one untreated male. All the females were evaluated 13-15 days after mating for incidence of pregnancy, total corpora lutea, total implants and pre- and postimplant losses. SP protected from B[α]P-induced pre- and postimplant losses in the male dominant lethal test, and from B[α]P-induced postimplantation losses in treated females. Moreover, SP treatment significantly reduced the detrimental effect of B[α]P on the quality of mouse semen. Our results illustrate the protective effects of SP in relation to B[α]P-induced genetic damage to germ cells. We conclude that SP, owing mainly to the presence of phycocyanin, could be of potential clinical interest in cancer treatment or prevention of relapse.Journal of medicinal food 05/2014; · 1.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to investigate whether Chrysanthermum zawadskii var. latilobum Kitamura (C. zawadskii) extracts has an inhibitory effect against the mutagenicity by cigarette smoke condensates (CSC). C. zawadskii was extracted with 70% ethanol and the yield was 18.5%. We further fractioned 70% ethanol extract sequentially to diethylether, chloroform, dichloromethane, and aqueous water, and gained the yield of 17.5%, 5.6%, 5.8%, 32.8% and 35.5%, respectively. In the Ames test, there was no mutagenic effect of crude extract and its solvent fractions up to 2 mg/plate toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 with or without S-9 mix metabolic activations. On the contrary, the crude extract showed an inhibitory activity against the mutagenicity of CSC in the presence of S-9 mix metabolic activation. Diethyl ether layer among five solvent fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. The inhibitory activity of diethyl ether fraction was also increased in a dose-dependent manner and the inhibitory rate was about 97.7% at the concentration of 1 mg/plate. In this study, we conclude that crude extract of C. zawadskii itself is potentially safe for mutagenicity, and the diethyl ether fraction has an inhibitory effect against the mutagenicity of CSC.Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science. 06/2011; 19(3).