HIV-1 IN alternative molecular recognition of DNA induced by raltegravir resistance mutations.
ABSTRACT Virologic failure during treatment with raltegravir, the first effective drug targeting HIV integrase, is associated with two exclusive pathways involving either Q148H/R/K, G140S/A or N155H mutations. We carried out a detailed analysis of the molecular and structural effects of these mutations. We observed no topological change in the integrase core domain, with conservation of a newly identified Omega-shaped hairpin containing the Q148 residue, in particular. In contrast, the mutations greatly altered the specificity of DNA recognition by integrase. The native residues displayed a clear preference for adenine, whereas the mutant residues strongly favored pyrimidines. Raltegravir may bind to N155 and/or Q148 residues as an adenine bioisoster. This may account for the selected mutations impairing raltegravir binding while allowing alternative DNA recognition by integrase. This study opens up new opportunities for the design of integrase inhibitors active against raltegravir-resistant viruses.
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ABSTRACT: Most antiretroviral medical treatments were developed and tested principally on HIV-1 B nonrecombinant strain, which represents less than 10% of the worldwide HIV-1-infected population. HIV-1 circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG is prevalent in West Africa and is becoming more frequent in other countries. Previous studies suggested that the HIV-1 polymorphisms might be associated to variable susceptibility to antiretrovirals. This study is pointed to compare the susceptibility to integrase (IN) inhibitors of HIV-1 subtype CRF02_AG IN respectively to HIV-1 B. Structural models of B and CRF02_AG HIV-1 INs as unbound enzymes and in complex with the DNA substrate were built by homology modeling. IN inhibitors-raltegravir (RAL), elvitegravir (ELV) and L731,988-were docked onto the models, and their binding affinity for both HIV-1 B and CRF02_AG INs was compared. CRF02_AG INs were cloned and expressed from plasma of integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-naïve infected patients. Our in silico and in vitro studies showed that the sequence variations between the INs of CRF02_AG and B strains did not lead to any notable difference in the structural features of the enzyme and did not impact the susceptibility to the IN inhibitors. The binding modes and affinities of INSTI inhibitors to B and CRF02_AG INs were found to be similar. Although previous studies suggested that several naturally occurring variations of CRF02_AG IN might alter either IN/vDNA interactions or INSTIs binding, our study demonstrate that these variations do affect neither IN activity nor its susceptibility to INSTIs.Advances in Virology 01/2012; 2012:548657.
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ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality of AIDS-related complications in patients with HIV; however, the prevalence of AIDS-defining cancers and non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased. In this Review we discuss the management of HAART pharmacotherapy in relation to cytotoxic chemotherapy or targeted antineoplastic agents. We will review potential pharmacological interactions between antiretroviral and antineoplastic therapies and consider how to combine antiretroviral and antineoplastic agents in patients with HIV who are receiving HAART therapy.The Lancet Oncology 05/2011; 12(9):905-12. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV-1 IN is a pertinent target for the development of AIDS chemotherapy. The first IN-specific inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, RAL, was designed to block the ST reaction. We characterized the structural and conformational features of RAL and its recognition by putative HIV-1 targets - the unbound IN, the vDNA, and the IN•vDNA complex - mimicking the IN states over the integration process. RAL binding to the targets was studied by performing an extensive sampling of the inhibitor conformational landscape and by using four different docking algorithms: Glide, Autodock, VINA, and SurFlex. The obtained data evidenced that: (i) a large binding pocket delineated by the active site and an extended loop in the unbound IN accommodates RAL in distinct conformational states all lacking specific interactions with the target; (ii) a well-defined cavity formed by the active site, the vDNA, and the shortened loop in the IN•vDNA complex provide a more optimized inhibitor binding site in which RAL chelates Mg(2+) cations; (iii) a specific recognition between RAL and the unpaired cytosine of the processed DNA is governed by a pair of strong H-bonds similar to those observed in DNA base pair G-C. The identified RAL pose at the cleaved vDNA shed light on a putative step of RAL inhibition mechanism. This modeling study indicates that the inhibition process may include as a first step RAL recognition by the processed vDNA bound to a transient intermediate IN state, and thus provides a potentially promising route to the design of IN inhibitors with improved affinity and selectivity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Molecular Recognition 09/2013; 26(9):383-401. · 3.01 Impact Factor