Synthesis and applications of Rhodamine derivatives as fluorescent probes.
ABSTRACT Rhodamine dyes are widely used as fluorescent probes owing to their high absorption coefficient and broad fluorescence in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum, high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability. A great interest in the development of new synthetic procedures for preparation of Rhodamine derivatives has arisen in recent years because for most applications the probe must be covalently linked to another (bio)molecule or surface. In this critical review the strategies for modification of Rhodamine dyes and a discussion on the variety of applications of these new derivatives as fluorescent probes are given (108 references).
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ABSTRACT: A series of rhodamine derivatives L1–L3 have been prepared and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and ESI-MS. These compounds exhibited selective and sensitive “turn-on” fluorescent and colorimetric responses to Al3+ in methanol. Upon the addition of Al(III), the spiro ring was opened and a metal-probe complex was formed in a 1:1 stoichiometry, as was further confirmed by ESI-MS spectroscopy. The chemo-dosimeters L1–L3 exhibited good binding constants and low detection limits towards Al(III). We also successfully demonstrate the reversibility of the metal to ligand complexation (opened ring to spirolactam ring).Sensors 01/2015; 15:9097-9111. DOI:10.3390/s150409097 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel “turn-on” fluorescent sensor based on glucose and rhodamine B for detection of mercury ions was designed and synthesized. The fluorescent sensor showed an extreme specificity for mercury ions than for other metal ions in aqueous solution. On adding mercury ions to the solution of glucose-based rhodamine B sensor, the absorption and fluorescence signals enhanced remarkably at 567 and 587 nm, respectively. Titration of sensor with mercury ions showed 1:1 stoichiometric reaction. The cyclic voltammetric measurement of an increasing amount of mercury ions in the solution of glucose-based rhodamine B sensor commendably showed the change in the fluorescence characteristics. Furthermore, the successful detection of trace amount of mercury ions in water indicated that glucose-based rhodamine B sensor can be used for the detection of the limited mercury ions in drinking water.Spectroscopy Letters 09/2015; 48(8). DOI:10.1080/00387010.2014.933354 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Specific labeling of biomolecules with bright fluorophores is the keystone of fluorescence microscopy. Genetically encoded self-labeling tag proteins can be coupled to synthetic dyes inside living cells, resulting in brighter reporters than fluorescent proteins. Intracellular labeling using these techniques requires cell-permeable fluorescent ligands, however, limiting utility to a small number of classic fluorophores. Here we describe a simple structural modification that improves the brightness and photostability of dyes while preserving spectral properties and cell permeability. Inspired by molecular modeling, we replaced the N,N-dimethylamino substituents in tetramethylrhodamine with four-membered azetidine rings. This addition of two carbon atoms doubles the quantum efficiency and improves the photon yield of the dye in applications ranging from in vitro single-molecule measurements to super-resolution imaging. The novel substitution is generalizable, yielding a palette of chemical dyes with improved quantum efficiencies that spans the UV and visible range.Nature Methods 01/2015; DOI:10.1038/nmeth.3256 · 25.95 Impact Factor