Synthesis and applications of Rhodamine derivatives as fluorescent probes.
ABSTRACT Rhodamine dyes are widely used as fluorescent probes owing to their high absorption coefficient and broad fluorescence in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum, high fluorescence quantum yield and photostability. A great interest in the development of new synthetic procedures for preparation of Rhodamine derivatives has arisen in recent years because for most applications the probe must be covalently linked to another (bio)molecule or surface. In this critical review the strategies for modification of Rhodamine dyes and a discussion on the variety of applications of these new derivatives as fluorescent probes are given (108 references).
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ABSTRACT: A novel iridium(III) complex-based chemosensor bearing the 5,6-bis(salicylideneimino)-1,10-phenanthroline ligand receptor was developed, which exhibited a highly sensitive and selective color change from colorless to yellow and a visible turn-off luminescence response upon the addition of Cu(II) ions. The interactions of this iridium(III) complex with Cu2+ ions and thirteen other cations have been investigated by UV-Vis absorption titration, emission titration, and 1H NMR titration.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99930. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biofilms, organic matter, iron/aluminum oxides, and clay minerals bind toxic heavy metal ions and control their fate and bioavailability in the environment. The spatial relationship of metal ions to biomacromolecules such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms with microbial cells and biogenic minerals is complex and occurs at the micro- and submicrometer scale. Here, we review the application of highly selective and sensitive metal fluorescent probes for confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) that were originally developed for use in life sciences and propose their suitability as a powerful tool for mapping heavy metals in environmental biofilms and cell-EPS-mineral aggregates (CEMAs). The benefit of using metal fluorescent dyes in combination with CLSM imaging over other techniques such as electron microscopy is that environmental samples can be analyzed in their natural hydrated state, avoiding artifacts such as aggregation from drying that is necessary for analytical electron microscopy. In this minireview, we present data for a group of sensitive fluorescent probes highly specific for Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Hg2+, illustrating the potential of their application in environmental science. We evaluate their application in combination with other fluorescent probes that label constituents of CEMAs such as DNA or polysaccharides and provide selection guidelines for potential combinations of fluorescent probes. Correlation analysis of spatially resolved heavy metal distributions with EPS and biogenic minerals in their natural, hydrated state will further our understanding of the behavior of metals in environmental systems since it allows for identifying bonding sites in complex, heterogeneous systems.Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 01/2013; 79(21):6524-6534.
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ABSTRACT: Ordered mono-amide cross-linked alkyl/siloxane hybrids (mono-amidosils) incorporating a Rhodamine (B) methyl ester perchlorate dye (Rh(B)CH3ClO4) have been synthesized through the sol–gel process and self-directed assembly. The host hybrid matrix m-A(14) is a lamellar bilayer hierarchically structured hybrid composed of short methyl-capped alkyl chains grafted to a siliceous framework through amide groups. At low dye concentration [n = 20, where n is the molar ratio of amide groups per Rh(B)CH3ClO4] a new lamellar structure with higher interlamellar distance than that of m-A(14) is formed, whereas at higher dye content (n = 5) this new lamellar structure coexists with that of m-A(14). The efficient encapsulation of Rh(B)CH3ClO4 provided by m-A(14) via hydrogen bonding interactions ensured the complete dissolution of the dye and induced a blue shift of the emission of the dye with respect to that of the isolated state, leading to an increase in the quantum yield from values below 0.01 % (measured for the isolated dye) to 4 % at n = 20. The formation of non-fluorescent H-type dimers in the sample with n = 5 accounts for the reduction of the quantum yield. The incorporation of Rh(B)CH3ClO4) into m-A(14) was clearly beneficial from the standpoint of the dye’s photostability, allowing to suppress photobleaching during the first 4 h. An intensification of the emission intensity by 50 and 25 % for the emission centered at 600 and 645 nm resulted, respectively, at n = 20.Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 11/2014; 72(2). · 1.66 Impact Factor