The Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger NHE1 Is an Akt Substrate Necessary for Actin Filament Reorganization by Growth Factors
ABSTRACT The kinase Akt mediates signals from growth factor receptors for increased cell proliferation, survival, and migration, which contribute to the positive effects of Akt in cancer progression. Substrates are generally inhibited when phosphorylated by Akt; however, we show phosphorylation of the plasma membrane sodium-hydrogen exchanger NHE1 by Akt increases exchanger activity (H(+) efflux). Our data fulfill criteria for NHE1 being a bona fide Akt substrate, including direct phosphorylation in vitro, using mass spectrometry and Akt phospho-substrate antibodies to identify Ser(648) as the Akt phosphorylation site and loss of increased exchanger phosphorylation and activity by insulin and platelet-derived growth factor in fibroblasts expressing a mutant NHE1-S648A. How Akt induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling to promote cell migration and tumor cell metastasis is unclear, but disassembly of actin stress fibers by platelet-derived growth factor and insulin and increased proliferation in growth medium are inhibited in fibroblasts expressing NHE1-S648A. We predict that other functions shared by Akt and NHE1, including cell growth and survival, might be regulated by increased H(+) efflux.
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ABSTRACT: Regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) and protection against cytosolic acidification is primarily a function of the ubiquitous plasma membrane Na+/H+exchanger-1 (NHE1), which uses a highly conserved process to transfer cytosolic hydrogen ions (H+) across plasma membranes in exchange for extracellular sodium ions (Na+). Growth factors, which are essential regulators of morphogenesis, have also been found to be key activators of NHE1 exchanger activity; however, the crosstalk between both has not been fully evaluated during organ development. Here we report that mammary branching morphogenesis induced by transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFα) requires PI3K-dependent NHE1-activation and subsequent pHi alkalization. Inhibiting NHE1 activity after TGFα stimulation with 10 μM of the NHE1-specific inhibitor N-Methyl-N-isobutyl Amiloride (MIA) dramatically disrupted branching morphogenesis, induced extensive proliferation, ectopic expression of the epithelial hyper-proliferative marker Keratin-6 and sustained activation of MAPK. Together these findings indicate a novel developmental signaling cascade involving TGFα>PI3K>NHE1>pHi alkalization, which leads to a permissible environment for MAPK negative feedback inhibition and thus regulated mammary branching morphogenesis.Developmental Biology 02/2012; 365(1):71-81. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2012.02.010 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Invadopodia are invasive protrusions with proteolytic activity uniquely found in tumor cells. Cortactin phosphorylation is a key step during invadopodia maturation, regulating Nck1 binding and cofilin activity. The precise mechanism of cortactin-dependent cofilin regulation and the roles of this pathway in invadopodia maturation and cell invasion are not fully understood. We provide evidence that cortactin-cofilin binding is regulated by local pH changes at invadopodia that are mediated by the sodium-hydrogen exchanger NHE1. Furthermore, cortactin tyrosine phosphorylation mediates the recruitment of NHE1 to the invadopodium compartment, where it locally increases the pH to cause the release of cofilin from cortactin. We show that this mechanism involving cortactin phosphorylation, local pH increase, and cofilin activation regulates the dynamic cycles of invadopodium protrusion and retraction and is essential for cell invasion in 3D. Together, these findings identify a novel pH-dependent regulation of cell invasion.The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2011; 195(5):903-20. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201103045 · 9.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell motility and migration play pivotal roles in numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes including development and tissue repair. Cell migration is regulated through external stimuli such as platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), a key regulator in directional cell migration during embryonic development and a chemoattractant during postnatal migratory responses including wound healing. We previously showed that PDGFRalpha signaling is coordinated by the primary cilium in quiescent cells. However, little is known about the function of the primary cilium in cell migration. Here we used micropipette analysis to show that a normal chemosensory response to PDGF-AA in fibroblasts requires the primary cilium. In vitro and in vivo wound healing assays revealed that in ORPK mouse (IFT88(Tg737Rpw)) fibroblasts, where ciliary assembly is defective, chemotaxis towards PDGF-AA is absent, leading to unregulated high speed and uncontrolled directional cell displacement during wound closure, with subsequent defects in wound healing. These data suggest that in coordination with cytoskeletal reorganization, the fibroblast primary cilium functions via ciliary PDGFRalpha signaling to monitor directional movement during wound healing.Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry 01/2010; 25(2-3):279-92. DOI:10.1159/000276562 · 3.55 Impact Factor