The Effects of Interleukin-10 on the Development of Epileptiform Activity in the Hippocampus Induced by Transient Hypoxia, Bicuculline, and Electrical Kindling
ABSTRACT The comparative effects of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 on the development of epileptiform activity were studied in hippocampal field CA1 neurons in different models of epileptogenesis not accompanied by visible morphological lesions in brain cells: 1) a model of hypoxic kindling in rat hippocampal slices; 2) a disinhibitory model of epileptogenesis in rat hippocampal slices using the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline; and 3) a partial electrical kindling model in intact rats. Interleukin-10 (1 ng/ml) blocked the development of post-hypoxic hyperexcitability of field CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, decreasing the effectiveness of hypoxia in suppressing neuron activity during the hypoxic episode. Interleukin-10 had no effect on the initiation of epileptiform activity in pyramidal neurons induced by the proconvulsant bicuculline. Single intrahippocampal injections of interleukin-10 at a dose of 1 ng in 5 microl suppressed the development of focal convulsions ("ictal" discharges) at the stimulation site in partial kindling in freely moving animals for several hours after administration. However, this cytokine had no effect on the duration of the "interictal" component of focal afterdischarges or on the severity of behavioral seizures. These results show that the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, at the concentrations used here, has not only antihypoxic activity, but also a protective effect in relation to the initiation of the "ictal," but not the "interictal" component of epileptiform activity in hippocampal neurons.
SourceAvailable from: Tatiana Afrikanova[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we uncovered the anticonvulsant properties of turmeric oil and its sesquiterpenoids (ar-turmerone, α-, β-turmerone and α-atlantone) in both zebrafish and mouse models of chemically-induced seizures using pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). In this follow-up study, we aimed at evaluating the anticonvulsant activity of ar-turmerone further. A more in-depth anticonvulsant evaluation of ar-turmerone was therefore carried out in the i.v. PTZ and 6-Hz mouse models. The potential toxic effects of ar-turmerone were evaluated using the beam walking test to assess mouse motor function and balance. In addition, determination of the concentration-time profile of ar-turmerone was carried out for a more extended evaluation of its bioavailability in the mouse brain. Ar-turmerone displayed anticonvulsant properties in both acute seizure models in mice and modulated the expression patterns of two seizure-related genes (c-fos and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [bdnf]) in zebrafish. Importantly, no effects on motor function and balance were observed in mice after treatment with ar-turmerone even after administering a dose 500-fold higher than the effective dose in the 6-Hz model. In addition, quantification of its concentration in mouse brains revealed rapid absorption after i.p. administration, capacity to cross the BBB and long-term brain residence. Hence, our results provide additional information on the anticonvulsant properties of ar-turmerone and support further evaluation towards elucidating its mechanism of action, bioavailability, toxicity and potential clinical application.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81634. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081634 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Fertility and Sterility 03/2011; 95(4). DOI:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.01.066 · 4.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An increasing body of literature suggests that inflammation, and in particular neuroinflammation, is involved in the pathophysiology particular forms of epilepsy and convulsive disorders. Animal models have been used to identify inflammatory triggers in epileptogenesis and inflammation has recently been shown to enhance seizures. For example, pharmacological blockade of the IL-1beta/IL-1 receptor type 1 axis during epileptogenesis has been demonstrated to provide neuroprotection in temporal lobe epilepsy. Furthermore, experimental models have suggested neural damage and the onset of spontaneous recurrent seizures are modulated via complex interactions between innate and adaptive immunity. However, it has also been suggested that inflammation can occur as a result of epilepsy, since animal models have also shown that seizure activity can induce neuroinflammation, and that recurrent seizures maintain chronic inflammation, thereby perpetuating seizures. On the basis of these observations, it has been suggested that immune-mediated therapeutic strategies may be beneficial for treating some drug resistant epilepsies with an underlying demonstrable inflammatory process. Although the potential mechanisms of immunotherapeutic strategies in drug-resistant seizures have been extensively discussed, evidence on the efficacy of such therapy is limited. However, recent research efforts have been directed toward utilizing the potential therapeutic benefits of anti-inflammatory agents in neurological disease and these are now considered prime candidates in the ongoing search for novel anti-epileptic drugs. The objective of our review is to highlight the immunological features of the pathogenesis of seizures and to analyze possible immunotherapeutic approaches for drug resistant epilepsies that can alter the immune-mediated pathogenesis.Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics 03/2014; 10(4). DOI:10.4161/hv.28400 · 3.64 Impact Factor