The Effect of a Volleyball Practice on Anabolic Hormones and Inflammatory Markers in Elite Male and Female Adolescent Players

Pediatric Department, Child Health and Sport Center, Meir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2009; 23(5):1553-9. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181aa1bcb
Source: PubMed


The effect of a single exercise as well as exercise training on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) axis and inflammatory cytokines was studied mainly in adults participating in individualized endurance-type sports. The gender-specific effect of exercise on these systems in adolescents is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a typical volleyball practice on anabolic (GH, IGF-I, and testosterone) and catabolic hormones (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 [IL-6]) in elite, national team level, male (n = 14) and female (n = 13) adolescent volleyball players (13-18 years, Tanner stage 4-5). Exercise consisted of a typical 1-hour volleyball practice. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the practice. Exercise led to significant increases in GH (0.2 +/- 0.1 to 2.7 +/- 0.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.5 to 6.4 +/- 1.4 ng x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.05 for both), testosterone (6.1 +/- 0.9 to 7.3 +/- 1.0 and 2.4 +/- 0.6 to 3.3 +/- 0.7 ng x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.05 for both), and IL-6 (1.1 +/- 0.6 to 3.1 +/- 1.5 and 1.2 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 1.1 pg x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.002 for both). Exercise had no significant effect on IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and cortisol levels. There were no gender differences in the hormonal response to training. Changes in GH and testosterone after the volleyball practice suggest exercise-related anabolic adaptations. The increase in IL-6 may indicate its important role in muscle tissue repair. These changes may serve as an objective quantitative tool to monitor training intensity in unique occasions in team sports.

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    • "Only a few studies featuring individual sport modalities have looked at the effects of different periods of training periodisation on immunological adaptations over an entire season (Henson, Nieman, & Kernodle, 2001; Nemet, Pontello, Rose-Gottron, & Cooper, 2004). Moreover, the immunological responses for different training periods in adolescent athletes engaged in team sports, which are very popular in these age groups (Eliakim et al., 2009), have not been studied thoroughly. Furthermore, studies have suggested that the incidence of upper respiratory symptoms, which are often thought to be a marker of early stages of overtraining syndrome, were related to excursions above individually identifiable thresholds of training strain and monotony (Foster, 1998; Plutur et al., 2004). "

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    • "Copeland and colleagues (Copeland , Consitt, & Tremblay, 2002) found that physical exercise increased concentrations of testosterone in 19-year-old females. Similarly, Eliakim et al. (2009) reported increased testosterone concentrations in elite female adolescent players following one hour of volleyball practice. Kochan´ska- Dziurowicz and colleagues (Kochan´ska-Dziurowicz, Gawel-Szostek, Gabrys´, & Kmita, 2001) examined the testosterone responses of sportswomen aged 15– 19 years and found a significant increase in testosterone concentration following an incremental cycle test. "
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