The Effect of a Volleyball Practice on Anabolic Hormones and Inflammatory Markers in Elite Male and Female Adolescent Players
ABSTRACT The effect of a single exercise as well as exercise training on the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) axis and inflammatory cytokines was studied mainly in adults participating in individualized endurance-type sports. The gender-specific effect of exercise on these systems in adolescents is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a typical volleyball practice on anabolic (GH, IGF-I, and testosterone) and catabolic hormones (cortisol) and inflammatory mediators (interleukin-6 [IL-6]) in elite, national team level, male (n = 14) and female (n = 13) adolescent volleyball players (13-18 years, Tanner stage 4-5). Exercise consisted of a typical 1-hour volleyball practice. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the practice. Exercise led to significant increases in GH (0.2 +/- 0.1 to 2.7 +/- 0.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.5 to 6.4 +/- 1.4 ng x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.05 for both), testosterone (6.1 +/- 0.9 to 7.3 +/- 1.0 and 2.4 +/- 0.6 to 3.3 +/- 0.7 ng x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.05 for both), and IL-6 (1.1 +/- 0.6 to 3.1 +/- 1.5 and 1.2 +/- 0.5 to 2.5 +/- 1.1 pg x mL, in men and women, respectively, p < 0.002 for both). Exercise had no significant effect on IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, and cortisol levels. There were no gender differences in the hormonal response to training. Changes in GH and testosterone after the volleyball practice suggest exercise-related anabolic adaptations. The increase in IL-6 may indicate its important role in muscle tissue repair. These changes may serve as an objective quantitative tool to monitor training intensity in unique occasions in team sports.
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- "Only a few studies featuring individual sport modalities have looked at the effects of different periods of training periodisation on immunological adaptations over an entire season (Henson, Nieman, & Kernodle, 2001; Nemet, Pontello, Rose-Gottron, & Cooper, 2004). Moreover, the immunological responses for different training periods in adolescent athletes engaged in team sports, which are very popular in these age groups (Eliakim et al., 2009), have not been studied thoroughly. Furthermore, studies have suggested that the incidence of upper respiratory symptoms, which are often thought to be a marker of early stages of overtraining syndrome, were related to excursions above individually identifiable thresholds of training strain and monotony (Foster, 1998; Plutur et al., 2004). "
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- "Copeland and colleagues (Copeland , Consitt, & Tremblay, 2002) found that physical exercise increased concentrations of testosterone in 19-year-old females. Similarly, Eliakim et al. (2009) reported increased testosterone concentrations in elite female adolescent players following one hour of volleyball practice. Kochan´ska- Dziurowicz and colleagues (Kochan´ska-Dziurowicz, Gawel-Szostek, Gabrys´, & Kmita, 2001) examined the testosterone responses of sportswomen aged 15– 19 years and found a significant increase in testosterone concentration following an incremental cycle test. "
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of supra-maximal exercise on circulating concentrations of salivary testosterone, salivary cortisol, and salivary immunoglobulin A in female adolescents. Nineteen apparently healthy females aged 15-16 years participated in this study. All participants completed 668 s sprints, interspersed with 30 s recovery intervals on a cycle ergometer. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, and immunoglobulin A samples were taken before and 5 min after exercise. Experimental procedures continued over two mornings, at least 3 h after a light breakfast. Participants refrained from performing any strenuous physical activity for at least 24 h prior to the exercise test. None of the participants were engaged in a structured training programme. The group mean (± s) for peak power output was 562 ± 113.0 W. Female adolescents recruited for this study showed no changes in salivary testosterone, cortisol or immunoglobulin A following repeated bouts of supra-maximal cycling (P > 0.05). To date, there has been a paucity of information concerning adolescents' hormonal and mucosal immune function responses to supra-maximal exercise. Our data provide further guidance with regard to physical activities and sports prescription for female adolescents. Further research, on a larger sample of females, is required to elucidate the physiological significance of these findings.Journal of Sports Sciences 10/2010; 28(12):1361-8. DOI:10.1080/02640414.2010.510144 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exercise training efficiency depends on the training load, as well as on the athlete's ability to tolerate it. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fighting simulation (3 fights, 6 min each, 30 min rest between fights) on anabolic (IGF-I, LH, FSH, estradiol, and testosterone) and catabolic hormones (cortisol) in elite, male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) adolescent (12-17 years) Taekwondo fighters. Blood samples were collected before the first and immediately after the third fight. The fighting simulation practice led to significant (p < 0.05) decreases in IGF-I (males -27.1 ± 25.6, females -22.4 ± 36.3 ng/ml), LH (males -0.7 ± 1.2, females -2.3 ± 3.3 U/L), and FSH (males -0.9 ± 0.5, females -1.5 ± 1.1 U/L), and to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in cortisol (males 141.9 ± 30.1, females 64.1 ± 30.6 mcg/dL) in both genders. Fighting simulation decreases in testosterone (males -1.9 ± 1.6, females -0.02 ± 0.06 ng/mL), and free androgen index (males -20.1 ± 21.5, females -0.3 ± 0.5) were significant (p < 0.05) only in male fighters. Exercise had no significant effect on estradiol, sex-hormone-binding globulins or thyroid function tests. Our data demonstrate that the physiologic and psychologic strain of a Taekwondo fighting simulation day led to a catabolic-type circulating hormonal response.Arbeitsphysiologie 12/2010; 110(6):1283-90. DOI:10.1007/s00421-010-1612-6 · 2.30 Impact Factor