Home telehealth for chronic disease management: a systematic review and an analysis of economic evaluations.
ABSTRACT The research objectives were two-fold: first, to systematically review the literature on the cost-effectiveness of home telehealth for chronic diseases, and second to develop a framework for the conduct of economic evaluation of home telehealth projects for patients with chronic diseases.
A comprehensive literature search identified twenty-two studies (n = 4,871 patients) on home telehealth for chronic diseases published between 1998 and 2008. Studies were reviewed in terms of their methodological quality and their conclusions.
Home telehealth was found to be cost saving from the healthcare system and insurance provider perspectives in all but two studies, but the quality of the studies was generally low. An evaluative framework was developed which provides a basis to improve the quality of future studies to facilitate improved healthcare decision making, and an application of the framework is illustrated using data from an existing program evaluation of a home telehealth program.
Current evidence suggests that home telehealth has the potential to reduce costs, but its impact from a societal perspective remains uncertain until higher quality studies become available.
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ABSTRACT: To develop a conceptual model for effective use of telehealth in the management of chronic health conditions, and to use this to develop and evaluate an intervention for people with two exemplar conditions: raised cardiovascular disease risk and depression. The model was based on several strands of evidence: a metareview and realist synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence on telehealth for chronic conditions; a qualitative study of patients' and health professionals' experience of telehealth; a quantitative survey of patients' interest in using telehealth; and review of existing models of chronic condition management and evidence-based treatment guidelines. Based on these evidence strands, a model was developed and then refined at a stakeholder workshop. Then a telehealth intervention ('Healthlines') was designed by incorporating strategies to address each of the model components. The model also provided a framework for evaluation of this intervention within parallel randomised controlled trials in the two exemplar conditions, and the accompanying process evaluations and economic evaluations. Primary care. The TElehealth in CHronic Disease (TECH) model proposes that attention to four components will offer interventions the best chance of success: (1) engagement of patients and health professionals, (2) effective chronic disease management (including subcomponents of self-management, optimisation of treatment, care coordination), (3) partnership between providers and (4) patient, social and health system context. Key intended outcomes are improved health, access to care, patient experience and cost-effective care. A conceptual model has been developed based on multiple sources of evidence which articulates how telehealth may best provide benefits for patients with chronic health conditions. It can be used to structure the design and evaluation of telehealth programmes which aim to be acceptable to patients and providers, and cost-effective. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.BMJ Open 02/2015; 5(2):e006448. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Only a minority of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have access to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Home-based solutions such as telehealthcare, have been used in efforts to make PR more available. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of telehealthcare on physical activity level, physical capacity and dyspnea in patients with COPD, and to describe the interventions used. Randomized controlled trials were identified through database searches, reference lists and included authors. Articles were reviewed based on eligibility criteria by three authors. Risk of bias was assessed by two authors. Standardized mean differences (SMD) or mean differences (MD) with 95% CI were calculated. Forest plots were used to present data visually. Nine studies (982 patients) were included. For physical activity level, there was a significant effect favoring telehealthcare (MD, 64.7 min; 95% CI, 54.4-74.9). No difference between groups was found for physical capacity (MD, -1.3 m; 95% CI, -8.1-5.5) and dyspnea (SMD, 0.088; 95% CI, -0.056-0.233). Telehealthcare was promoted through phone calls, websites or mobile phones, often combined with education and/or exercise training. Comparators were ordinary care, exercise training and/or education. The use of telehealthcare may lead to improvements in physical activity level, although the results should be interpreted with caution given the heterogeneity in studies. This is an important area of research and further studies of the effect of telehealthcare for patients with COPD would be beneficial. In PROSPERO 2012: CRD42012003294. Study protocol: http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPEROFILES/3294_PROTOCOL_20121016.pdf. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Respiratory Medicine 10/2014; · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Hypertension is a prevalent chronic disease that requires ongoing management and self-care. The disease affects 31% of American adults and contributed to or caused the deaths of 348,000 Americans in 2008, fewer than 50% of whom effectively self-managed the disease. However, self-management is complex, with patients requiring ongoing support and easy access to care. Telehealth may help foster the knowledge and skills necessary for those with hypertension to engage in successful self-management. This paper considers the applicability, efficacy, associated risks, and cost-effectiveness of telehealth for individuals and populations with hypertension. Telehealth is a broad term, encompassing telemedicine and mobile health that is used for physician-patient interactions, diagnostics, care delivery, education, information sharing, monitoring, and reminders. Telemedicine may have considerable utility for people diagnosed with hypertension who have poor access or social barriers that constrain access, but potential risks exist. Telehealth technology is evolving rapidly, even in the absence of fully proven cost-effectiveness and efficacy. Considering the cost of inpatient and emergency department care for patients with hypertension, telehealth is a highly attractive alternative, but there are risks to consider. Incorporating telehealth, which is increasingly characterized by mobile health, can increase both the capacity of health care providers and the reach of patient support, clinical management, and self-care. Telehealth studies need improvement; long-term outcome data on cardiovascular events must be obtained, and robust risk analyses and economic studies are needed to prospectively evaluate the safety and cost savings for hypertension self-management. (Population Health Management 2014;xx:xxx-xxx).Population Health Management 10/2014; · 1.18 Impact Factor