Frequency of progranulin mutations in a German cohort of 79 frontotemporal dementia patients

Memory Clinic, Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology Freiburg, University Hospital Freiburg, Lehener Str. 88, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.
Journal of Neurology (Impact Factor: 3.38). 08/2009; 256(12):2043-51. DOI: 10.1007/s00415-009-5248-6
Source: PubMed


Mutations of the progranulin gene lead to progranulin haploinsufficiency and to frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTD) with TDP-43 positive inclusions. It is assumed that unknown genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors are responsible for the observed marked degree of phenotypic variability among mutation carriers. This is the first published series of German FTD cases screened for progranulin mutations. Mean age at onset was 62 years, 19 patients (24%) had a positive family history of dementia, and 11 patients (14%) had a positive family history for probable FTD. Data on FTD subtypes are presented. Two mutations were identified (3%), one of which has been described previously. Clinically, both patients showed the frontal-behavioural variant type of FTD. Remarkably, a sibling of one case presented with progressive nonfluent aphasia, clinically distinct from the brother. We also performed quantitative PCR analyses to detect potential whole progranulin gene and exon deletions. Here, results were negative.

Download full-text


Available from: Klaus Schmidtke, Oct 15, 2014
  • Source
    • "Most of the mutations lead to frameshift and premature stop codons. E.g., point mutations were identified in two cases of a German cohort of 79 patients (Schlachetzki, Schmidtke et al. 2009). Pathogenic mutations in PGRN invariably lead to mutant mRNA transcripts, which undergo nonsense-mediated decay, thereby resulting in haploinsufficiency (Baker, Mackenzie et al. 2006; Cruts, Gijselinck et al. 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration is the second most common form of cortical dementia in the presenium after Alzheimer’s disease. Clinically, based on consensus guidelines, three distinct disease entities can be distinguished: frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Dementia of frontal type and motor neuron disease inclusion dementia are the most frequent neuropathological subtypes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. By using immunohistochemistry, the latter is characterized by the presence of filamentous ubiquitin-reactive but tau-negative inclusions in nerve cell bodies and neurites. In contrast, Pick‘s disease and familial frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) are both characterized by abundant filamentous nerve cell inclusions made up of the microtubule-associated protein tau. The recent discovery of more than 15 different mutations in the tau gene in FTDP-17 brought the tau protein to the centre stage. These findings had a major impact on our understanding of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by tau filamentous inclusions in neurones and/or glial cells which are grouped under the generic term of tauopathies. However, as exciting these new molecular insights are, it would be inappropriate to lump frontotemporal lobar degeneration as tauopathies. Recent neuropathological and genetic data strongly suggest that there is more than one genetic background for frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
    Advanced Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases, 12/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-529-7
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human angiogenin (ANG) has been highlighted as an angiogenic factor which supports primary and metastatic tumor growth. Recent genetic studies have shown that ANG is presented as a susceptibility gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). They found several missense mutations, including K40I, which present the weakest functional activity in ANG variants. In this study, we investigate whether human wild type ANG (wANG) and its variant K40I (mANG) maintain their divergent functional capacities in neuronal cells. To evaluate this, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were transfected with wANG and mANG DNA and identified both wild and mutant ANG are localized to nuclei and have no effects on proliferation. We have shown that human wANG prevented cell death under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in both SH-SY5Y and NSC-34 cells, tested by MTT assay. These effects were more enhanced in motor neuron cell NSC-34. wANG also played a role in cell migration, while mANG decreased these functional activities. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the intracellular signaling of ERK1/2 (at Thr183/Tyr185) was increased following transfection of the wANG gene, and significantly decreased by mANG in neuronal cells. These findings suggest that human ANG plays a critical role in cell protection and migration following alterations in ERK1/2 signaling in SH-SY5Y cells. This may provide the possible relationship between mutations in hANG and other neurodegenerative diseases as well as ALS.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 02/2010; 340(1-2):133-41. DOI:10.1007/s11010-010-0410-0 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Progranulin is a growth factor involved in the regulation of multiple processes including tumorigenesis, wound repair, development, and inflammation. The recent discovery that mutations in the gene encoding for progranulin (GRN) cause frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and other neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia, has brought renewed interest in progranulin and its functions in the central nervous system. GRN null mutations cause protein haploinsufficiency, leading to a significant decrease in progranulin levels that can be detected in plasma, serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of mutation carriers. The dosage of circulating progranulin sped up the identification of GRN mutations thus favoring genotype-phenotype correlation studies. Researchers demonstrated that, in GRN null mutation carriers, the shortage of progranulin invariably precedes clinical symptoms and thus mutation carriers are "captured" regardless of their disease status. GRN is a particularly appealing gene for drug targeting, in the way that boosting its expression may be beneficial for mutation carriers, preventing or delaying the onset of GRN-related neurodegenerative diseases. Physiological regulation of progranulin expression level is only partially known. Progranulin expression reflects mutation status and, intriguingly, its levels can be modulated by some additional factor (i.e. genetic background; drugs). Thus, factors increasing the production and secretion of progranulin from the normal gene are promising potential therapeutic avenues. In conclusion, peripheral progranulin is a nonintrusive highly accurate biomarker for early identification of mutation carriers and for monitoring future treatments that might boost the level of this protein.
    American Journal of Neurodegenerative Diseases 01/2012; 1(2):180-90.
Show more