Chronic central versus systemic blockade of AT(1) receptors and cardiac dysfunction in rats post-myocardial infarction.
ABSTRACT In rats, both central and systemic ANG II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blockade attenuate sympathetic hyperactivity, but central blockade more effectively attenuates left ventricular (LV) dysfunction post-myocardial infarction (MI). In protocol I, we examined whether functional effects on cardiac load may play a role and different cardiac effects disappear after withdrawal of the blockade. Wistar rats were infused for 4 wk post-MI intracerebroventricularly (1 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) or injected subcutaneously daily (100 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) with losartan. LV dimensions and function were assessed at 4 wk and at 6 wk post-MI, i.e., 2 wk after discontinuing treatments. At 4 and 6 wk post-MI, LV dimensions were increased and ejection fraction was decreased. Intracerebroventricular but not subcutaneous losartan significantly improved these parameters. At 6 wk, LV peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) and maximal or minimal first derivative of change in pressure over time (dP/dt(max/min)) were decreased and LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was increased. All four indexes were improved by previous intracerebroventricular losartan, whereas subcutaneous losartan improved LVEDP only. In protocol II, we evaluated effects of oral instead of subcutaneous administration of losartan for 4 wk post-MI. Losartan ( approximately 200 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) either via drinking water or by gavage similarly decreased AT(1) receptor binding densities in brain nuclei and improved LVEDP but further decreased LVPSP and dP/dt(max). These results indicate that effects on cardiac load by peripheral AT(1) receptor blockade or the pharmacokinetic profile of subcutaneous versus oral dosing do not contribute to the different cardiac effects of central versus systemic AT(1) receptor blockade post-MI.
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ABSTRACT: Bile duct ligation (BDL) causes congestive liver failure that initiates hemodynamic changes including peripheral vasodilation and generalized edema. Peripheral vasodilation is hypothesized to then activate compensatory mechanisms including increased drinking behavior and neurohumoral activation. This study tested the hypothesis that changes in the expression of AT1R mRNA and protein in the lamina terminalis is associated with BDL induced hypoosmolality in the rat. All rats received either BDL or sham ligation surgery. The rats were housed in metabolic chambers for measurement of fluid and food intake and urine output. Angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression in the lamina terminalis was assessed by western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Average baseline water intake significantly increased in BDL rats compared to sham and upregulation of AT1R protein and AT1aR mRNA were observed in the subfornical organ (SFO) of BDL rats. Separate groups of BDL and sham ligated rats were instrumented with minipumps filled with either losartan (2.0 μg/μl) or 0.9% saline for chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) or subcutaneous (SC) chronic infusion. Chronic ICV losartan infusion attenuated the increased drinking behavior and prevented the increased abundance of AT1R protein in the SFO in BDL rats. Chronic SC did not affect water intake or AT1R abundance in the SFO. The data presented here indicate a possible role of increased central AT1R expression in the regulation of drinking behavior during congestive cirrhosis.Experimental physiology 12/2012; · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Acquired epilepsy is frequently associated with structural lesions following trauma, stroke and infections. While seizures are often difficult to treat, there is no clinically applicable strategy to prevent the development of epilepsy in patients at risk. We have recently shown that vascular injury is associated with activation of albumin-mediated transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling, and followed by local inflammatory response and epileptiform activity ex vivo. Here we investigated albumin-mediated TGF-β signaling and tested the efficacy of blocking the TGF-β pathway in preventing epilepsy.Methods: We addressed the role of TGF-β signaling in epiletogenesis in two different rat models of vascular injury, combining in vitro and in vivo biochemical assays, gene expression, magnetic resonance and direct optical imaging for blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and vascular reactivity. Long-term electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings were acquired in freely behaving animals.Results: We demonstrate that serum-derived albumin preferentially induces activation of the activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) pathway of TGF-β receptor I in astrocytes. We further show that the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (AT1), losartan, previously identified as a blocker of peripheral TGF-β signaling, effectively blocks albumin-induced TGF-β activation in the brain. Most importantly, losartan prevents the development of delayed recurrent spontaneous seizures, an effect that persists weeks after drug withdrawal.Interpretation: TGF-β signaling, activated in astrocytes by serum-derived albumin, is involved in epileptogenesis. We propose losartan, an FDA-approved drug, as an efficient anti-epileptogenic therapy for epilepsy associated with vascular injury. ANN NEUROL 2014. © 2014 American Neurological AssociationAnnals of Neurology 03/2014; 75(6). · 11.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our aim was to assess the timing and mechanisms of the sympathoexcitation that occurs immediately after coronary ligation. We recorded thoracic sympathetic (tSNA) and phrenic activities, heart rate (HR) and perfusion pressure in Wistar rats subjected to either ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) or Sham operated in the working heart-brainstem preparation. Thirty minutes after LAD ligation, tSNA had increased (basal: 2.5±0.2 µV, 30 min: 3.5±0.3 µV), being even higher at 60 min (5.2±0.5 µV, P<0.01); while no change was observed in Sham animals. HR increased significantly 45 min after LAD (P<0.01). Sixty minutes after LAD ligation, there was: (i) an augmented peripheral chemoreflex - greater sympathoexcitatory response (50, 45 and 27% of increase to 25, 50 and 75 µL injections of NaCN 0.03%, respectively, when compared to Sham, P<0.01); (ii) an elevated pressor response (32±1 versus 23±1 mmHg in Sham, P<0.01) and a reduced baroreflex sympathetic gain (1.3±0.1 versus Sham 2.0±0.1%.mmHg-1, P<0.01) to phenylephrine injection; (iii) an elevated cardiac sympathetic tone (ΔHR after atenolol: -108±8 versus -82±7 bpm in Sham, P<0.05). In contrast, no changes were observed in cardiac vagal tone and bradycardic response to both baroreflex and chemoreflex between LAD and Sham groups. The immediate sympathoexcitatory response in LAD rats was dependent on an excitatory spinal sympathetic cardiocardiac reflex, whereas at 3 h an angiotensin II type 1 receptor mechanism was essential since Losartan curbed the response by 34% relative to LAD rats administered saline (P<0.05). A spinal reflex appears key to the immediate sympathoexcitatory response after coronary ligation. Therefore, the sympathoexcitatory response seems to be maintained by an angiotensinergic mechanism and concomitant augmentation of sympathoexcitatory reflexes.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101886. · 3.53 Impact Factor