CarD Tricks and Magic Spots: Mechanisms of Stringent Control in Mycobacteria
ABSTRACT Global reprogramming of bacterial gene expression in response to nutritional stress, the stringent response, is well studied in E. coli. Now Stallings et al. report that Mycobacterium tuberculosis employs a different strategy involving the general transcription factor CarD for growth control and persistence in response to stresses encountered during infection.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Lynn Connolly, Aug 04, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: Javier Abellon
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- "The interaction with RNAP implicates CdnL in a possibly vital role in M. xanthus transcription. The CdnL homolog in mycobacteria, also essential, was recently implicated in the control of rRNA transcription at steady state and during diverse cellular stresses such as starvation, in the early stages of which there is as much as a 20-fold enhancement in cdnL expression (18,33). This CdnL was also shown to bind RNAP, but its mapping to the β subunit was deduced from observations with TtCdnL, since mycobacterial CdnL itself failed to exhibit such an interaction in the two-hybrid analysis employed. "
ABSTRACT: CarD, a global transcriptional regulator in Myxococcus xanthus, interacts with CarG via CarDNter, its N-terminal domain, and with DNA via a eukaryotic HMGA-type C-terminal domain. Genomic analysis reveals a large number of standalone proteins resembling CarDNter. These constitute, together with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) interacting domain, RID, of transcription-repair coupling factors, the CarD_TRCF protein family. We show that one such CarDNter-like protein, M. xanthus CdnL, cannot functionally substitute CarDNter (or vice versa) nor interact with CarG. Unlike CarD, CdnL is vital for growth, and lethality due to its absence is not rescued by homologs from various other bacteria. In mycobacteria, with no endogenous DksA, the function of the CdnL homolog mirrors that of Escherichia coli DksA. Our finding that CdnL, like DksA, is indispensable in M. xanthus implies that they are not functionally redundant. Cells are normal on CdnL overexpression, but divide aberrantly on CdnL depletion. CdnL localizes to the nucleoid, suggesting piggyback recruitment by factors such as RNAP, which we show interacts with CdnL, CarDNter and RID. Our study highlights a complex network of interactions involving these factors and RNAP, and points to a vital role for M. xanthus CdnL in an essential DNA transaction that affects cell division.Nucleic Acids Research 04/2010; 38(14):4586-98. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkq214 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular pathways regulating rapid proliferation and persistence are fundamental for pathogens but are not elucidated fully in Toxoplasma gondii. Promoters of T. gondii ribosomal proteins (RPs) were analyzed by EMSAs and ChIP. One RP promoter domain, known to bind an Apetela 2, bound to nuclear extract proteins. Promoter domains appeared to associate with histone acetyl transferases. To study effects of a RP gene's regulation in T. gondii, mutant parasites (Δrps13) were engineered with integration of tetracycline repressor (TetR) response elements in a critical location in the rps13 promoter and transfection of a yellow fluorescent-tetracycline repressor (YFP-TetR). This permitted conditional knockdown of rps13 expression in a tightly regulated manner. Δrps13 parasites were studied in the presence (+ATc) or absence of anhydrotetracycline (-ATc) in culture. -ATc, transcription of the rps13 gene and expression of RPS13 protein were markedly diminished, with concomitant cessation of parasite replication. Study of Δrps13 expressing Myc-tagged RPL22, -ATc, showed RPL22 diminished but at a slower rate. Quantitation of RNA showed diminution of 18S RNA. Depletion of RPS13 caused arrest of parasites in the G1 cell cycle phase, thereby stopping parasite proliferation. Transcriptional differences ±ATc implicate molecules likely to function in regulation of these processes. In vitro, -ATc, Δrps13 persists for months and the proliferation phenotype can be rescued with ATc. In vivo, however, Δrps13 could only be rescued when ATc was given simultaneously and not at any time after 1 week, even when L-NAME and ATc were administered. Immunization with Δrps13 parasites protects mice completely against subsequent challenge with wildtype clonal Type 1 parasites, and robustly protects mice against wildtype clonal Type 2 parasites. Our results demonstrate that G1 arrest by ribosomal protein depletion is associated with persistence of T. gondii in a model system in vitro and immunization with Δrps13 protects mice against subsequent challenge with wildtype parasites.PLoS ONE 11/2010; 5(11):e14057. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0014057 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infection of cells with African swine fever virus (ASFV) can lead to the formation of zipper-like stacks of structural proteins attached to collapsed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae. We show that the collapse of ER cisternae observed during ASFV infection is dependent on the viral envelope protein, J13Lp. Expression of J13Lp alone in cells is sufficient to induce collapsed ER cisternae. Collapse was dependent on a cysteine residue in the N-terminal domain of J13Lp exposed to the ER lumen. Luminal collapse was also dependent on the expression of J13Lp within stacks of ER where antiparallel interactions between the cytoplasmic domains of J13Lp orientated N-terminal domains across ER cisternae. Cisternal collapse was then driven by disulphide bonds between N-terminal domains arranged in antiparallel arrays across the ER lumen. This provides a novel mechanism for biogenesis of modified stacks of ER present in cells infected with ASFV, and may also be relevant to cellular processes.Traffic 09/2011; 13(1):30-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2011.01293.x · 4.71 Impact Factor