Article

In vivo evidence of differential impact of typical and atypical antipsychotics on intracortical myelin in adults with schizophrenia.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, The David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-6968, USA.
Schizophrenia Research (Impact Factor: 4.43). 08/2009; 113(2-3):322-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2009.06.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Imaging and post-mortem studies provide converging evidence that patients with schizophrenia have a dysregulated developmental trajectory of frontal lobe myelination. The hypothesis that typical and atypical medications may differentially impact brain myelination in adults with schizophrenia was previously assessed with inversion recovery (IR) images. Increased white matter (WM) volume suggestive of increased myelination was detected in the patient group treated with an atypical antipsychotic compared to a typical one.
In a follow-up reanalysis of MRI images from the original study, we used a novel method to assess whether the difference in WM volumes could be caused by a differential effect of medications on the intracortical myelination process.
Two different male cohorts of healthy controls ranging in age from 18-35 years were compared to cohorts of subjects with schizophrenia who were treated with either oral risperidone (Ris) or fluphenazine decanoate (Fd).
A novel MRI method that combines the distinct tissue contrasts provided by IR and proton density (PD) images was used to estimate intracortical myelin (ICM) volume.
When compared with their pooled healthy control comparison group, the two groups of schizophrenic patients differed in the frontal lobe ICM measure with the Ris group having significantly higher volume.
The data suggest that in adults with schizophrenia antipsychotic treatment choice may be specifically and differentially impacting later-myelinating intracortical circuitry. In vivo MRI can be used to dissect subtle differences in brain tissue characteristics and thus help clarify the effect of pharmacologic treatments on developmental and pathologic processes.

1 Follower
 · 
133 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives. The interhemispheric auditory pathway has been shown to play a crucial role in the processing of acoustic stimuli, and alterations of structural and functional connectivity between bilateral auditory areas are likely relevant to the pathogenesis of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs). The aim of this study was to examine this pathway in patients with chronic schizophrenia regarding their lifetime history of AVHs. Methods. DTI scans were acquired from 33 healthy controls (HC), 24 schizophrenia patients with a history of AVHs (LT-AVH) and nine schizophrenia patients without any lifetime hallucinations (N-LT-AVH). The interhemispheric auditory fibre bundles were extracted using streamline tractography. Subsequently, diffusivity indices, namely Fractional Anisotropy (FA), Trace, Mode, Axial and Radial diffusivity, were calculated. Results. FA was decreased over the entire pathway in LT-AVH compared with N-LT-AVH. Moreover, LT-AVH displayed decreased FA and Mode as well as increased radial diffusivity in the midsagittal section of the fibre tract. Conclusions. These findings indicate complex microstructural changes in the interhemispheric auditory pathway of schizophrenia patients with a history of AVHs. Alterations appear to be absent in patients who have never hallucinated.
    The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 09/2014; 16(1):1-14. DOI:10.3109/15622975.2014.948063 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking is becoming more prevalent in developing countries, such as China, and is the largest single cause of preventable death worldwide. New emerging reports are highlighting how chronic cigarette smoking plays a role in neural dysfunctions, such as cognitive decline. Basic animal experimental studies have shown that rats undergo persistent pathological brain changes after being given chronic levels of nicotine. What is perhaps less appreciated is the fact that chronic cigarette smoking induces subtle anatomical changes in the human brain. Consequently, this chapter aims to summarize and integrate the existing magnetic resonance imaging studies on both gray- and white-matter marcostructural and microstructural changes. The reviewed studies demonstrate that chronic cigarette smoking results in discrete and localized alterations in brain region tissue (both the gray and white matter of different brain regions), which may, in part, be responsible for different neural dysfunctions. In addition, we further discuss the possible pathological and neurobiological mechanisms of these nicotinic effects on the brain tissue. We will also address the limitations of the current studies on this issue and identify opportunities for future research.
    Neurological Sciences 01/2015; 36(4). DOI:10.1007/s10072-015-2065-9 · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is regarded as an etiologically homogenous model for understanding neuroanatomic disruptions associated with a high risk for schizophrenia. This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to analyze white matter microstructure in individuals with 22q11.2DS. We focused on the cingulum bundle (CB), previously shown to be disrupted in patients with schizophrenia and associated with symptoms of psychosis. Methods: White matter microstructure was assessed in the anterior, superior, and posterior CB using the tractography algorithm in DTIStudio. Neuropsychological function, presence of prodromal symptoms of psychosis, and medication history were assessed in all participants. Results: Relative to controls, young adults with 22q11.2DS showed alterations in most DTI metrics of the CB. Alterations were associated with positive prodromal symptoms of psychosis. However, when individuals with 22q11.2DS were divided by usage of antipsychotics/mood stabilizers, the medicated and non-medicated groups differed significantly in axial diffusivity of the anterior CB and in fractional anisotropy of the superior CB. DTI metrics did not differ between the medicated group and the control group. Conclusions: Results suggest that the microstructure of the CB is altered in individuals with 22q11.2DS, and that those alterations may underlie positive prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Our findings further provide preliminary evidence that antipsychotic/mood stabilizer usage may have a reparative effect on white matter microstructure in prodromal 22q11.2DS, independent of the potential effects of psychosis. Future studies of white matter pathology in individuals with 22q11.2DS should test for potential effects of medication on white matter microstructure.
    Schizophrenia Research 07/2014; 161(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.010 · 4.43 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
7 Downloads
Available from
Aug 5, 2014