A prospective epidemiological study of injuries to New Zealand premier club rugby union players.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to document and analyse injuries sustained in premier grade rugby union over a competitive season and investigate the seasonal trend of injury incidence.
A prospective epidemiological cohort study of injury.
Field-based collection of match-play injury data.
Two-hundred and seventy-one players from eight premier grade rugby union teams.
Injury incidence as a function of exposure and match round including descriptive statistical analysis of injury characteristics.
Injury incidence during the season was 52 injuries per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI: 42-65). Poisson regression demonstrated a significant decrease in injury rate by 2% for each successive round throughout the season (p<0.04). Most injuries were sustained during the tackle resulting in soft tissue injuries to the lower limb.
The results of this study demonstrate an early season bias of injuries. The majority of injuries were classified as 'slight' with players returning to training or play within two days. The tackle was the phase of play which produced the most injuries consistent with previous research. Compared to analogous data collected 10 years previously, injury incidence of a similar cohort was considerably reduced.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of repeated isometric measurements of neck strength and endurance in a simulated rugby contact posture. Data were collected from healthy active university students (n= 20) over 3 sessions. Each session consisted of a single maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and endurance trial for extension and flexion. The endurance trials were analyzed to determine the area under the force curve (%AUC) and the time to fatigue (TTF). Reliability was calculated using the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC). The results revealed that the MVC values for extension were non-significant for session (p=0.21), while some session differences were seen for flexion (p=0.01), where session 1, 115.3N was less than session 3, 126.4N (p=0.03). For %AUC flexion values (86.0%AUC) were greater than extension (59.4%AUC) (p=0.02). A similar effect was observed for TTF with flexion (125.0s) having significantly greater TTF than extension (86. 1s). For peak force the greatest SEM and MDC were achieved for extension (15.3N and 42.3N), while flexion produced lower values (11.3N and 31.2N). In contrast for the endurance trials SEM and MDC were greater in flexion than in extension. The findings from this study indicate that the neck musculature can be reliably assessed in a simulated contact posture. For peak force extension provided more consistent measures across time as there appears to be a learning effect for flexion. Additionally the SEM and MDC scores provide a useful tool for future assessment of neck strength and endurance.The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 09/2014; DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000689 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Shoulder injuries in rugby union football have been the focus of few in-depth studies, despite their frequency and severity. The study's objective was to describe the incidence, patterns and mechanisms of shoulder injuries in rugby. Design Prospective cohort study of shoulder injury incidence and retrospective case-series study of shoulder injury mechanisms. Methods Data were collected from Super Rugby matches from 2005 to 2010 involving Elite level adult male rugby players. Results 7920 player participation hours and 100 shoulder injuries were recorded during 397 Super Rugby matches. The shoulder injury incidence rate was 13 per 1000 player hours (95% CI 10 to 16). The mean number of days unavailable for selection due to these injuries was 37 (95% CI 25-54). Tacklers sustained shoulder injuries at a higher rate than ball carriers (Rate Ratio = 1.7 (95% CI 0.5-5.3)). The most frequently reported injuries were those to the acromio-clavicular joint; dislocations resulted in the greatest amount of missed play. Using video analysis, 47 of the 100 shoulder injury events were successfully identified and analysed. The main mechanisms of shoulder injury were: contact with the ground with the shoulder/arm in horizontal adduction, flexion, and internal rotation; and, impact to the lateral aspect of the shoulder with the elbow flexed and arm at the side. Conclusions Direct impact to the shoulder, either through player-to-player contact or contact with the ground, is the main cause of shoulder injury. Methods to reduce injury risk, such as shoulder pads and tackle skills, require consideration.Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.020 · 3.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rugby Union, a popular full-contact sport played throughout the world, has one of the highest rates of concussion of all full-contact sports.Sports Medicine 08/2014; 44(12). DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0233-3 · 5.32 Impact Factor