Homozygosity Mapping Reveals PDE6C Mutations in Patients with Early-Onset Cone Photoreceptor Disorders

Department of Ophthalmology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.99). 08/2009; 85(2):240-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.06.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cone photoreceptor disorders form a clinical spectrum of diseases that include progressive cone dystrophy (CD) and complete and incomplete achromatopsia (ACHM). The underlying disease mechanisms of autosomal recessive (ar)CD are largely unknown. Our aim was to identify causative genes for these disorders by genome-wide homozygosity mapping. We investigated 75 ACHM, 97 arCD, and 20 early-onset arCD probands and excluded the involvement of known genes for ACHM and arCD. Subsequently, we performed high-resolution SNP analysis and identified large homozygous regions spanning the PDE6C gene in one sibling pair with early-onset arCD and one sibling pair with incomplete ACHM. The PDE6C gene encodes the cone alpha subunit of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) phosphodiesterase, which converts cGMP to 5'-GMP, and thereby plays an essential role in cone phototransduction. Sequence analysis of the coding region of PDE6C revealed homozygous missense mutations (p.R29W, p.Y323N) in both sibling pairs. Sequence analysis of 104 probands with arCD and 10 probands with ACHM revealed compound heterozygous PDE6C mutations in three complete ACHM patients from two families. One patient had a frameshift mutation and a splice defect; the other two had a splice defect and a missense variant (p.M455V). Cross-sectional retinal imaging via optical coherence tomography revealed a more pronounced absence of cone photoreceptors in patients with ACHM compared to patients with early-onset arCD. Our findings identify PDE6C as a gene for cone photoreceptor disorders and show that arCD and ACHM constitute genetically and clinically overlapping phenotypes.

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    Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 11/2014; 64. DOI:10.1016/j.mcn.2014.10.007 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study aimed to identify the genetic defects in 2 families with autosomal recessive macular dystrophy with central cone involvement. Design Case series. Participants Two families and a cohort of 244 individuals with various inherited maculopathies and cone disorders. Methods Genome-wide linkage analysis and exome sequencing were performed in 1 large family with 5 affected individuals. In addition, exome sequencing was performed in the proband of a second family. Subsequent analysis of the identified mutations in 244 patients was performed by Sanger sequencing or restriction enzyme digestion. The medical history of individuals carrying the MFSD8 variants was reviewed and additional ophthalmic examinations were performed, including electroretinography (ERG), multifocal ERG (mfERG), perimetry, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence, and fundus photography. Main Outcome Measures MFSD8 variants, age at diagnosis, visual acuity, fundus appearance, color vision defects, visual field, ERG, mfERG, fundus autofluorescence, and OCT findings. Results Compound heterozygous variants in MFSD8, a gene encoding a lysosomal transmembrane protein, were identified in 2 families with macular dystrophy with a normal or subnormal ERG, but reduced mfERG. In both families, a heterozygous missense variant p.Glu336Gln was identified, which was predicted to have a mild effect on the protein. In the first family, a protein-truncating variant (p.Glu381*) was identified on the other allele, and in the second family, a variant (c.1102G>C) was identified that results in a splicing defect leading to skipping of exon 11 (p.Lys333Lysfs*3). The p.Glu336Gln allele was found to be significantly enriched in patients with maculopathies and cone disorders (6/488) compared with ethnically matched controls (35/18 682; P < 0.0001), suggesting that it may act as a genetic modifier. Conclusions In this study, we identified variants in MFSD8 as a novel cause of nonsyndromic autosomal recessive macular dystrophy with central cone involvement. Affected individuals showed no neurologic features typical for variant late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (vLINCL), a severe and devastating multisystem lysosomal storage disease previously associated with mutations in MFSD8. We propose a genotype–phenotype model in which a combination of a severe and a mild variant cause nonsyndromic macular dystrophy with central cone involvement, and 2 severe mutations cause vLINCL.
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