Organisation of the catecholaminergic system in the vagal motor nuclei of pigs: a retrograde fluorogold tract tracing study combined with immunohistochemistry of catecholaminergic synthesizing enzymes.
ABSTRACT The vagal motor system is involved in the regulation of cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal functions. Vagal motor neurons are localized near or adjacent to catecholaminergic neurons, but their co-localisation seems species dependent, present in the cat but absent in the rabbit. In pig, a species commonly used as an experimental model in humans brain disorders (sudden infant death syndrome, hypoxia), the relationship is poorly understood. We aimed at describing the distribution of vagal motor neurons and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons by using a double staining method in combination with retrograde tracing of vagal efferent neurons. After fluorogold impregnation of the central part of the sectioned left cervical vagal trunk, two main vagal motor neuronal populations were located in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMX) and in the area of the nucleus ambiguus (Amb). Like in the human, the DMX was composed of different subpopulations of neurons with the same morphological characteristics. Immunohistochemistry of catecholaminergic synthesizing enzymes differentiated two main sites containing vagal motor populations: the dorsomedial and the ventrolateral medulla. TH-ir was rarely seen in vagal motor neurons of the DMX, but TH-ir neurons were present around the two main vagal motor neuronal populations that contained TH-ir fibres. The anatomical organisation of the vagal motor and the catecholaminergic neuronal systems are similar to those described in humans and suggest that the involvement of the catecholamines in the control of the vagal motor system may be similar in pigs and in humans.
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ABSTRACT: The catecholamine and serotonin innervation of the sheep olfactory bulb was studied using immunocytochemistry. Specific antisera raised against tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase and serotonin were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cell bodies were present in all cell layers except in the anterior olfactory nucleus, the greatest number being found in the glomerular layer. Neither dopamine beta-hydroxylase-positive nor serotonin-positive cell bodies were observed. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase-positive fibers were widely distributed in the granule cell layer but less widely in other layers. The glomerular layer contained the greatest distribution of serotonergic positive fibers, but such fibers were also visualized in other cell layers. No phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase-positive structures were found in this investigation.Neuroscience 04/1987; 20(3):1011-22. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Catecholaminergic neurons of the A2 area play a prominent role in brain stem vagal circuits. It is not clear, however, whether these neurons are noradrenergic or adrenergic, i.e., display tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DbetaH) immunoreactivity (-IR) or dopaminergic (i.e., TH- but not DbetaH-IR). Our aims were to investigate whether a subpopulation of neurons in the A2 area was dopaminergic and, if so, to investigate the effects of dopamine (DA) on the membrane of gastric-projecting vagal motoneurons. We observed that although the majority of A2 neurons were both TH- and DbetaH-IR, a small percentage of nucleus tractus solitarius neurons were TH-IR only, suggesting that DA itself may play role in these circuits. Whole cell recordings from thin brain stem slices showed that 71% of identified gastric-projecting motoneurons responded to DA (1-300 microM) with either an excitation (28%) or an inhibition (43%) of the membrane; the remaining 29% of the neurons were unresponsive. The DA-induced depolarization was mimicked by SK 38393 and prevented by pretreatment with SCH 23390. Conversely, the DA-induced inhibition was mimicked by bromoergocryptine and prevented by pretreatment with L741626. When tested on the same neuron, the effects of DA and NE were not always similar. In fact, in neurons in which DA induced a membrane depolarization, 77% were inhibited by NE, whereas 75% of neurons unresponsive to DA were inhibited by NE. Our data suggest that DA modulates the membrane properties of gastric-projecting motoneurons via D1- and D2-like receptors, and DA may play different roles than norepinephrine in brain stem vagal circuits.AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 05/2007; 292(4):G1002-8. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pediatric disorders frequently exhibit dysregulation of sympatho-vagal activity, and impaired control of cardiovascular vagal networks. Factors influencing the maturation of vagal networks are of special interest because they normally protect the heart and circulation, facilitate digestion, and preserve visceral metabolism. At present, scant literature exists regarding the development of vagal innervation of the heart. This study in neonatal swine, Sus scrofa, mapped the normal anatomy of vagal motor cell groups, with special focus on the origins of cardiomotor neurons. Right cardiac nerve branches, or the right thoracic vagal trunk were resected, inserted into capillary glass vials filled with 2% FluoroGold (FG) tracer solutions, and sealed to prevent leakage (false positives). Dorsal and ventral vagal complexes were identified on cross-sectioned tissues incubated in a well-characterized specific FG antibody. Thoracic and abdominal vagal motoneurons were cytologically heterogeneous, and predominantly medium-sized, polygonal cell bodies. Discrete longitudinal cell columns were observed, as well as organized arrays of elongate spindle-shaped cells in formation. Long axes and dendrites appeared to orient toward incoming peripheral sensory and central afferents, and were juxtaposed to cerebral microvasculature. The piglets' dorsal vagal complex is: (i) thick and long, comparable to ruminants, in contrast to much shorter lengths in non-ruminants, and (ii) the chief source of vagal motoneurons, forming discrete, topographically organized parasympathetic cell groups with distinct dendritic arbors. The cardiac motor subnucleus is localized to a highly restricted areal subunit of nucleus ambiguus' external formation in the vicinity of the obex. On the other hand, dorsal cardiac vagal motoneurons were few in number and diffusely distributed. Dorsal vagal motoneurons of neonatal swine likely projected primarily to the enteric nervous system, exerting excitatory influence over gastrointestinal activity.Autonomic Neuroscience 10/2004; 115(1-2):41-53. · 1.85 Impact Factor