[The prevention and management of subintimal angioplasty complications].
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the prevention and management of subintimal angioplasty (SIA) to treat lower extremity arterial occlusions.
From December 2003 to May 2008, 106 lower extremities with arterial occlusions (median length of 10.8 cm, range from 4.5 to 28.0 cm) were treated on an intention-to-treat basis with SIA. Twenty-one lower extremities had disabling claudication and 85 had limb-threatening ischemia. Main outcome measures included the occurrences of SIA complications and their prevention and management. In order to prevent and cure perforation of a vessel and the important collaterals being compromised, the recanalisation of SIA was performed in the "roadmap" of DSA, the guide wire was advanced with top loop through the subintimal plane until the occlusion was passed, the position of the catheter which was confirmed by injection of a small amount of contrast media during the manipulations. In order to prevent and cure acute reocclusion and embolisation, subintimal angioplasty of long occlusion was performed by long suitable diameter balloon catheters, with prolonged (2 to 3 min) inflation, stents were only placed with residual stenoses and intimal flaps. Anticoagulation was administered for 3 to 5 d and then antiplatelet treatment was given for 6 months.
The subcutaneous light gore of arterial access sites was seen in five legs, no arterial embolisation occurred. The perforation rate was 6% (7 legs), but no serious outcomes occurred. One patient had been amputated because of important collaterals being compromised. Three legs had acute occlusion in subintimal recanalisation and one patient converted what would have been an above-knee bypass, into a below-knee bypass.
The complications of subintimal angioplasty include perforation, embolisation, acute recanalisation occlusion and important collaterals being compromised. Most of these complications can be prevented and cured, few serious outcomes occur.