Detection of renal impairment as one specific comorbidity factor in multiple myeloma: multicenter study in 198 consecutive patients.
ABSTRACT Comorbidity factors have been reported in cancer patients to predict progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Renal impairment (RI) is postulated as one negative prognostic factor in multiple myeloma (MM). The study aim was to detect the best way to define RI and the impact of different RI stages on MM outcome.
In this multicenter analysis, we determined RI [serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft-Gault] and other prognostic factors in 198 MM patients to ascertain their value on PFS and OS.
Median serum creatinine was 0.9 mg/dL in all patients, whereas the eGFR - being decreased with a median of 80 mL/min/1.73 m(2)- allowed to detect early stages of RI. Via univariate analysis, we observed increasing hazard ratios (HRs) for impaired OS with deteriorating eGFR: with eGFR(MDRD)<90 and <30, HRs were 1.3 and 2.9, respectively. Multivariate analysis determined RI with eGFR<30 and <50 as well as age >59 yr as most important variables for OS. By incorporating eGFR<30 as the most relevant factor determined via multivariate analysis and beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)-MG) in a novel MM-risk score, we identified patients with significantly differing OS: median survival with 0, 1 or 2 risk factors were 71, 48, and 24 months, respectively.
These findings demonstrate that RI is frequent in MM, best detected via eGFR determination and an important prognostic factor. eGFR in combination with beta(2)-MG allows definitive risk stratification with largely differing survival in MM.
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was useful for predicting outcomes in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the sample size of patients with scores of 1 or more, captured by the CCI, did not exceed 35%. Further, some comorbidities were rarely found among patients who underwent HCT. Therefore, the current study was designed to (1) better define previously identified comorbidities using pretransplant laboratory data, (2) investigate additional HCT-related comorbidities, and (3) establish comorbidity scores that were suited for HCT. Data were collected from 1055 patients, and then randomly divided into training and validation sets. Weights were assigned to individual comorbidities according to their prognostic significance in Cox proportional hazard models. The new index was then validated. The new index proved to be more sensitive than the CCI since it captured 62% of patients with scores more than 0 compared with 12%, respectively. Further, the new index showed better survival prediction than the CCI (likelihood ratio of 23.7 versus 7.1 and c statistics of 0.661 versus 0.561, respectively, P < .001). In conclusion, the new simple index provided valid and reliable scoring of pretransplant comorbidities that predicted nonrelapse mortality and survival. This index will be useful for clinical trials and patient counseling before HCT.Blood 10/2005; 106(8):2912-9. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to analyse the importance and prognostic value of renal failure in multiple myeloma patients. The frequency and reversibility of renal failure in 775 multiple myeloma patients diagnosed between 1984–86 and 1990–92 in the Nordic countries were studied. Renal failure, defined as plasma creatinine >130μmol/l, was observed in 29% of the cases at the time of diagnosis. During the first year after diagnosis 58% achieved normalisation of p-creatinine, and this was achieved mainly during the first 3 months. Reversibility of renal failure was more frequently observed in patients with moderate renal failure, hypercalcaemia and low Bence-Jones protein excretion. In a multivariate analysis renal failure, high age, stage III disease and hypercalcaemia were independent prognostic factors for survival. Patients who needed dialysis had a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 3.5 months. A 12-months landmark analysis showed that reversibility of renal failure was a more important prognostic factor than response to chemotherapy. It is concluded that renal failure in multiple myeloma is reversible in about half the cases, and reversibility of renal failure improves long-term survival.European Journal Of Haematology 08/2000; 65(3):175 - 181. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study describes the occurrence of renal failure among 1353 newly diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma. Renal function was evaluated by serum creatinine concentration in 1353 cases, 31% of whom had renal failure at the time of diagnosis. In 1206 cases an estimation of creatinine clearance was made. When renal failure was defined by using creatinine clearance estimation, 49% had renal failure at the time of diagnosis. Renal failure was present in 24% of patients with an M component of IgG-, 31% of IgA- and 100% of IgD-type. 52% of patients with light chain disease had renal failure. The frequency of renal failure was similar in lambda- and kappa-light chain disease. Patients with a high excretion of Bence Jones protein in the urine (> 10 g/24 h) had renal failure significantly more often than patients with lower excretion. Renal failure was related to advanced disease; 41% of patients with stage III (Durie-Salmon) disease had renal failure. Renal failure was found in 45% of patients with hypercalcaemia. When estimated creatinine clearance was used as a predictor of renal function, the same trends were found as mentioned above. In addition, the proportion of patients with renal failure was found to increase with advancing age.European Journal Of Haematology 10/1994; 53(4):207-12. · 2.55 Impact Factor