Pathological Response after Chemoradiation for T3 Rectal Cancer

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, CA, USA.
Colorectal Disease (Impact Factor: 2.35). 07/2009; 12(7 Online):e24-30. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.02013.x
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on nodal disease in locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma.
Thirty-two patients staged uT3N0 and 27 patients staged uT3N1 rectal adenocarcinoma who underwent pre-CRT staging using endoscopic ultrasound or rectal protocol CT were included. The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (range: 45-50.4 Gy) at 1.8 Gy per fraction and all patients received concurrent 5-FU or capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Low anterior resection or abdomino-perineal resection occurred at a median of 46 days (range: 27-112 days) after CRT.
Eleven of 32 uT3N0 patients (34.4%) and 13 of 26 uT3N1 patients (50.0%) had ypN+ (P = 0.29). For patients with uT3N0, 10 of 20 (50.0%) with ypT2-3 and 1 of 12 (8.3%) with ypT0-1 were ypN+ (P = 0.02). For patients with uT3N1, 12 of 20 (60.0%) with ypT2-3 and 1 of 6 (16.7%) with ypT0-1 were ypN+ (P = 0.16). Overall, the ypN+ rate was 11.1% in the ypT0-yT1 group compared with 55.0% in the ypT2-yT3 group (P = 003). Among patients with uT3N0 disease, the ypN+ rate in patients who had surgery > 46 days vs<or= 46 days was 7.1%vs 55.6% (P = 0.01) respectively. Among patients with uT3N1 disease, the ypN+ rate in patients who had surgery > 46 days vs<or= 46 days was 54.5%vs 46.7%, (P = 0.99) respectively. Overall, the ypN+ rate in patients who had surgery > 46 days vs<or= 46 days was 28.0%vs 51.5% (P = 0.11).
The risk of residual nodal disease after CRT is significant. Primary tumour response is associated with nodal response.

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