Diabetes mellitus and gastric emptying: questions and issues in clinical practice
ABSTRACT It is long known that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be associated with changes in gastric emptying; a number of publications have linked diabetes to delayed gastric emptying of variable severity and often with poor relationship to gastrointestinal symptomatology. In contrast, more recent studies have reported accelerated gastric emptying when adjusted for glucose concentration in patients with diabetes, indicating a reciprocal relationship between gastric emptying and ambient glucose concentrations. This review proposes that gastroparesis or gastroparesis diabeticorum, a severe condition characterized by a significant impairment of gastric emptying accompanied by severe nausea, vomiting, and malnutrition, is often overdiagnosed and not well contrasted with delays in gastric emptying. The article offers a clinically relevant definition of gastroparesis that should help differentiate this rare condition from (often asymptomatic) delays in gastric emptying. The fact that delayed gastric emptying can also be observed in non-diabetic individuals under experimental conditions in which hyperglycaemia is artificially induced suggests that a delay in gastric emptying rate when blood glucose concentrations are high is actually an appropriate physiological response to hyperglycaemia, slowing further increases in blood glucose. The article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies for assessing gastric emptying, especially with respect to the diabetes population, and reviews newer diabetes therapies that decelerate the rate of gastric emptying. These therapies may be a beneficial tool in managing postprandial hyperglycaemia because they attenuate rapid surges in glucose concentrations by slowing the delivery of meal-derived glucose.
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between time-courses of mechanical and electrical events in longstanding diabetes was investigated in rats. Magnetic markers and electrodes were surgically implanted in the gastric serosa of male rats. Simultaneous recordings were obtained by AC biosusceptometry, electromyography and electrogastrography one, three and six months after injections of saline (control) or alloxan (diabetic). Frequency and amplitude of contraction, abnormal rhythmic index and half-bandwidth were obtained (ANOVA P < 0.05). Antral hypomotility and gastric motility instability were observed in the signal waveform of diabetic rats at the three time points of study. The mean frequency (4.4 ± 0.4 cpm) was strictly similar, but the mechanical and electrical correlation was lowest for diabetics groups. Decreases in mechanical amplitude were observed for all diabetic groups compared with control; also the ranges of frequency were much wider in diabetes. The half-bandwidth increased since the first month in mechanical recordings and only after the third month in electrical. In diabetic animals, about 40% of gastric activity was abnormal (against 12% in control) and may reach 60% in the sixth month of mechanical recordings. The multi-instrumental approach showed a more substantial deterioration in mechanical activity and created an integrative view of gastric motility for longstanding diabetic model.Physiological Measurement 12/2013; 35(1):69-81. DOI:10.1088/0967-3334/35/1/69 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gastroparesis is a condition characterized by delayed gastric emptying and the most common known underlying cause is diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal fullness, and early satiety, which impact to varying degrees on the patient's quality of life. Symptoms and deficits do not necessarily relate to each other, hence despite significant abnormalities in gastric emptying, some individuals have only minimal symptoms and, conversely, severe symptoms do not always relate to measures of gastric emptying. Prokinetic agents such as metoclopramide, domperidone, and erythromycin enhance gastric motility and have remained the mainstay of treatment for several decades, despite unwanted side effects and numerous drug interactions. Mechanical therapies such as endoscopic pyloric botulinum toxin injection, gastric electrical stimulation, and gastrostomy or jejunostomy are used in intractable diabetic gastroparesis (DG), refractory to prokinetic therapies. Mitemcinal and TZP-101 are novel investigational motilin receptor and ghrelin agonists, respectively, and show promise in the treatment of DG. The aim of this review is to provide an update on prokinetic and mechanical therapies in the treatment of DG.Diabetes Therapy 08/2010; 1(1):32-43. DOI:10.1007/s13300-010-0010-8
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ABSTRACT: In order to quantify the role of incretins in first- and second-phase insulin secretion (ISR) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a double-blind, randomized study with 12 T2DM subjects and 12 healthy subjects (HS) was conducted using the hyperglycemic clamp technique together with duodenal nutrition perfusion and intravenous infusion of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist exendin(9-39). Intravenous glucose alone resulted in a significantly greater first- and second-phase ISR in HS compared with T2DM subjects. Duodenal nutrition perfusion augmented both first- and second-phase ISR but first-phase ISR more in T2DM subjects (approximately eight- vs. twofold). Glucose-related stimulation of ISR contributed only 20% to overall ISR. Infusion with exendin(9-39) significantly reduced first- and second-phase ISR in both HS and T2DM subjects. Thus, both GLP-1 and non-GLP-1 incretins contribute to the incretin effect. In conclusion, both phases of ISR are impaired in T2DM. In particular, the responsiveness to glucose in first-phase ISR is blunted. GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretions are unaltered. The absolute incretin effect is reduced in T2DM; its relative importance, however, appears to be increased, highlighting its role as an important amplifier of first-phase ISR in T2DM.Diabetes 06/2012; 61(9):2349-58. DOI:10.2337/db11-1701 · 8.47 Impact Factor