It is long known that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be associated with changes in gastric emptying; a number of publications have linked diabetes to delayed gastric emptying of variable severity and often with poor relationship to gastrointestinal symptomatology. In contrast, more recent studies have reported accelerated gastric emptying when adjusted for glucose concentration in patients with diabetes, indicating a reciprocal relationship between gastric emptying and ambient glucose concentrations. This review proposes that gastroparesis or gastroparesis diabeticorum, a severe condition characterized by a significant impairment of gastric emptying accompanied by severe nausea, vomiting, and malnutrition, is often overdiagnosed and not well contrasted with delays in gastric emptying. The article offers a clinically relevant definition of gastroparesis that should help differentiate this rare condition from (often asymptomatic) delays in gastric emptying. The fact that delayed gastric emptying can also be observed in non-diabetic individuals under experimental conditions in which hyperglycaemia is artificially induced suggests that a delay in gastric emptying rate when blood glucose concentrations are high is actually an appropriate physiological response to hyperglycaemia, slowing further increases in blood glucose.
The article discusses the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies for assessing gastric emptying, especially with respect to the diabetes population, and reviews newer diabetes therapies that decelerate the rate of gastric emptying. These therapies may be a beneficial tool in managing postprandial hyperglycaemia because they attenuate rapid surges in glucose concentrations by slowing the delivery of meal-derived glucose. Copyright
"On the other hand, the mean frequency was strictly similar between all groups and techniques. Diabetes mellitus and disorders associated can be induced in rats through traditional models and are widely used (Liu et al 1990, Lerco et al 2003, Samsom et al 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between time-courses of mechanical and electrical events in longstanding diabetes was investigated in rats. Magnetic markers and electrodes were surgically implanted in the gastric serosa of male rats. Simultaneous recordings were obtained by AC biosusceptometry, electromyography and electrogastrography one, three and six months after injections of saline (control) or alloxan (diabetic). Frequency and amplitude of contraction, abnormal rhythmic index and half-bandwidth were obtained (ANOVA P < 0.05). Antral hypomotility and gastric motility instability were observed in the signal waveform of diabetic rats at the three time points of study. The mean frequency (4.4 ± 0.4 cpm) was strictly similar, but the mechanical and electrical correlation was lowest for diabetics groups. Decreases in mechanical amplitude were observed for all diabetic groups compared with control; also the ranges of frequency were much wider in diabetes. The half-bandwidth increased since the first month in mechanical recordings and only after the third month in electrical. In diabetic animals, about 40% of gastric activity was abnormal (against 12% in control) and may reach 60% in the sixth month of mechanical recordings. The multi-instrumental approach showed a more substantial deterioration in mechanical activity and created an integrative view of gastric motility for longstanding diabetic model.
"As well as meal composition, gastric emptying contributes to PPBG values (21), possibly via incretin factors. The gastric emptying rate, which has been shown to be influenced by diabetes (24), can induce some variation in peak ΔBG levels and the time at which peak ΔBG levels occur. In our study, peak BG excursion occurred around 110 min after the start of meals versus 45 min in healthy volunteers (25), and we observed a diverse range of values. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between carbohydrate intake and postprandial blood glucose (BG) levels to determine the most influential meal for type 2 diabetic subjects treated with basal insulin and needing prandial insulin.
Three-day BG profiles for 37 type 2 diabetic subjects, with A1C levels of 7.7%, treated with sulfonylurea and metformin, and well titrated on insulin glargine, were analyzed using a continuous glucose monitoring system. Food intake from 680 meals was recorded and quantified during continuous glucose monitoring.
The median BG excursion (DeltaBG) was higher at breakfast than at lunch or dinner (111 [81; 160] vs. 69.5 [41.5; 106] and 82.5 mg/dl [53; 119] mg/dl, P < 0.0001). There was a weak overall correlation between DeltaBG and carbohydrate intake. Correlation improved when mealtime was taken into account. Simple relationships were established: DeltaBG (mg/dl) = 65 x carbohydrate/body weight + 73 for breakfast (R(2) = 0.20, P < 0.0001); the slope was reduced by half at lunch and by one-third at dinner. Twelve relevant variables likely to affect DeltaBG were integrated into a polynomial equation. This model accounted for 49% of DeltaBG variability. Two groups of patients were identified: responders, in whom DeltaBG was well correlated with carbohydrate intake (R(2) >or= 0.30, n = 8), and nonresponders (R(2) < 0.30, n = 29). Responders exhibited a greater insulinopenic profile than nonresponders.
The carbohydrate intake in responders clearly drives DeltaBG, whereas, in nonresponders, other factors predominate. This sort of characterization should be used to guide therapeutic choices toward more targeted care with improved type 2 diabetes management.
Diabetes care 09/2010; 33(9):1913-8. DOI:10.2337/dc10-0115 · 8.42 Impact Factor
"Cross.sectional studies show that around 30%–50% of those with type 1 and 2 diabetes exhibit delayed gastric emptying.3,4 Paradoxically, however, in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, there may be an accelerated phase of gastric emptying and enhanced proximal contraction resulting in nausea in individuals without overt neuropathy.5,6 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gastroparesis is a condition characterized by delayed gastric emptying and the most common known underlying cause is diabetes mellitus. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal fullness, and early satiety, which impact to varying degrees on the patient's quality of life. Symptoms and deficits do not necessarily relate to each other, hence despite significant abnormalities in gastric emptying, some individuals have only minimal symptoms and, conversely, severe symptoms do not always relate to measures of gastric emptying. Prokinetic agents such as metoclopramide, domperidone, and erythromycin enhance gastric motility and have remained the mainstay of treatment for several decades, despite unwanted side effects and numerous drug interactions. Mechanical therapies such as endoscopic pyloric botulinum toxin injection, gastric electrical stimulation, and gastrostomy or jejunostomy are used in intractable diabetic gastroparesis (DG), refractory to prokinetic therapies. Mitemcinal and TZP-101 are novel investigational motilin receptor and ghrelin agonists, respectively, and show promise in the treatment of DG. The aim of this review is to provide an update on prokinetic and mechanical therapies in the treatment of DG.
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