Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood cancer in New South Wales: a record linkage investigation.
ABSTRACT Following linkage between the NSW Central Cancer Registry (CCR) and the NSW Midwives Data Collection, an investigation of the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of childhood cancer in their offspring was undertaken. Children born in NSW between 1994 and 2005, inclusive of 1,045,966 babies, were matched to 948 cancer cases in the CCR. After adjustment for maternal age, gestational age, baby's gender, birth weight, remoteness index, socioeconomic disadvantage and maternal health factors, no association (OR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.81-1.15, p = 0.68) was found with childhood cancer between mothers who smoked (81/100,000) and those who did not smoke during pregnancy (99/100,000). Maternal smoking was, however, significantly associated with retinoblastoma (OR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.19-4.09, p = 0.01). Association between maternal smoking and preterm birth and low birth weight was significant. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is significantly associated with retinoblastoma and adverse birth outcomes. These results should be highlighted to expectant mothers through antitobacco-smoking campaigns.
SourceAvailable from: Lesley J Ashton[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children, yet their etiology remains largely unknown. Tobacco smoke contains 61 known carcinogens and increases the risk of several adult cancers. This study investigated associations between parental smoking and risk of CBT in a population-based case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2010. Cases were identified through all 10 Australian paediatric oncology centres, controls via nationwide random-digit dialling, frequency matched to cases on age, sex and state of residence. Parental smoking information was obtained for 302 cases and 941 controls through mailed questionnaires that requested average daily cigarette use in each calendar year from age 15 to the child's birth, linked to residential and occupational histories. Data were analysed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for frequency matching variables and potential confounders. Overall, parental smoking before or during pregnancy showed no association with CBT risk. The odds ratios for maternal smoking before and during pregnancy were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.40) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.21) respectively, and those for paternal smoking before and during pregnancy were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.38) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.46) respectively. In children under 24 months of age, the odds ratios for maternal smoking preconception and during pregnancy were 5.06 (95% CI 1.35-19.00) and 4.61 (95% CI: 1.08, 19.63), although these results were based on modest numbers. Future studies should investigate the associations between maternal smoking and risk of CBT by the child's age of diagnosis. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 12/2012; 133(1). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28004 · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood cancer. Case-control analysis of linked records from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank with the Scottish Cancer Registry and the General Registry of Births and Deaths in Scotland was carried out. Aberdeen, Scotland. Cases (n=176) comprised children diagnosed with cancer under 15 years or recorded as having died of cancer. Four controls per case were matched by age and gender. Maternal age, body mass index, social class, marital status and smoking as well as pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and previous miscarriage, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar scores were compared between groups to test for association with cancer. ORs with 95% CIs were calculated using conditional logistic regression in univariable and multivariable models. Of the maternal characteristics tested, mother's age at delivery (cases mean 28.9 (SD 5.6) years vs controls mean 30.2 (SD 4.6), p=0.002) and smoking status (38.6% smokers among cases, 29.7% among controls, p=0.034) were found to be different between groups. Of the perinatal factors tested, low Apgar score at 5 min (adjusted OR (AOR) 4.59, 95% CI 1.52 to 13.87) and delivery by caesarean section (AOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.92) showed statistically significant associations with childhood cancer in the multivariable model. Younger maternal age, maternal smoking, delivery by caesarean section and low Apgar score at 5 min were independently associated with increased risk of childhood cancer. These general findings should be interpreted with caution as this study did not have the power to detect any association with individual diagnostic categories of childhood cancer.BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(1):e003656. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003656 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies regarding the association between parental smoking and the risk of childhood brain tumors (CBT) have reported inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis to summarize evidence on this association and to quantify the potential dose-response relationship.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102910. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102910 · 3.53 Impact Factor