The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

Department of Medical Science of Proteases, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.
Early human development (Impact Factor: 1.93). 07/2009; 85(9):589-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2009.06.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have tested the effects of aminopeptidase A (APA), MgSO(4) and various conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and examined the effects on both fetal heart and kidney.
We used recombinant human APA, which has been recently shown to work as an antihypertensive agent in SHRs (n=5). Each drug was administered from gestational day 10 to day 20 and each dose was increased daily up to 10 fold until the end of treatment except for MgSO(4) (n=5 per each group). Blood pressure (BP) was monitored and fetal kidneys and heart were histologically examined.
The antihypertensive effects of the drugs were in the following order: hydralazine>aminopeptidase A and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), candesartan>MgSO(4) and methyldopa. Microscopic examination showed that fetal exposure to candesartan is associated with poor proximal tubular differentiation in the kidney and that to MgSO(4) is associated with poor blood vessel formation in the heart, respectively.
Our present study showed that APA is one of the candidates for antihypertensive agents in hypertension during pregnancy.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteoglycan (P1) purified from Phellinus linteus has been reported to have anti-disease activities. The objectives of our research were to determine the anti-tumor effect and possible mechanisms of P1 on human cancer cells. Cell inhibition assay showed that P1 has an antiproliferative effect on HepG2, HT-29, NCI-H 460 and MCF-7 human colon cancer cells, especially it was very effective in inhibiting HT-29 cells. When HT-29-bearing mice were treated with P1(100mg/kg), there was relative increase in spleen and thymus weights, the plasmatic pIgR and IgA levels were significantly increased, also there was a notable decrease in plasmatic PGE2, Reg IV, EGFR and Akt concentrations measured by ELISA. RT-PCR analysis suggested that P1-induced HT-29 apoptosis appeared to be associated with a decrease in the levels of expression of Reg IV and EGFR. These results suggest that P1 might have two potential roles in treating cancer; it acts as an immunopotentiator partly through protecting T cells from escaping PGE2 attack and enhancing the mucosal IgA response, and as a direct inhibitor by disrupting the Reg IV/EGFR/Akt signaling pathway.
    International journal of biological macromolecules 04/2011; 48(3):511-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.01.014 · 3.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preeclampsia and preterm delivery are important potential complications in pregnancy and represent the leading causes for maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying both diseases remain unknown, thus available treatments (beta2-stimulants and magnesium sulfate) are essentially symptomatic. Both molecules have molecular weights less than 5-8  kDa, cross the placental barrier, and thus exert their effects on the fetus. The fetus produces peptides that are highly vasoactive and uterotonic and increase in response to maternal stress and with continued development. Fetal peptides are also small molecules that inevitably leak across into the maternal circulation. Aminopeptidases such as placental leucine aminopeptidase (P-LAP) and aminopeptidase A (APA) are large molecules that do not cross the placental barrier. We have shown that APA acts as an antihypertensive agent in the pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rat by degrading vasoactive peptides and as a result returns the animal to a normotensive state. P-LAP also acts as an antiuterotonic agent by degrading uterotonic peptides and thus prolongs gestation in the pregnant mouse. Given the ever increasing worldwide incidences of preeclampsia and preterm labor, it is imperative that new agents be developed to safely prolong gestation. We believe that the use of aminopeptidases hold promise in this regard.
    BioMed Research International 01/2011; 2011:286947. DOI:10.1155/2011/286947 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Evidence elucidating the pathophysiology and pharmacology of conventional drugs, β-2 stimulants and magnesium sulfate, on safety and effectiveness for preeclampsia and preterm labor are rarely found. Both compounds pass through the placental barrier and could exert their adverse effects on the fetus. Exposure to these agents could be problematic long after the birth, and possibly result in diseases such as autism and cardiomyopathy. Since 1970 the possible roles of placental aminopeptidases, which degrade peptide hormones, in preeclampsia and preterm labor have been studied. Areas covered: Many studies reveal that the fetus secretes peptide hormones, such as angiotensin II, vasopressin, and oxytocin, under hypoxia (stress) during the course of its growth, suggesting the critical effects these hormones have during pregnancy. The roles of placental aminopeptidases, the enzymes which degrade fetal hormones without passing through the placental barrier, were clarified. A first-step production system for recombinant aminopeptidases was established, by which engineered recombinant aminopeptidases were used for further experiments testing expected efficacy on controlling the level of hormones. Expert opinion: The authors conclude that both aminopeptidase A and placental leucine aminopeptidase could be potentially safe and effective drugs for patients and their babies in the treatment of preeclampsia and preterm labor.
    Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 08/2013; DOI:10.1517/13543784.2013.825248 · 5.43 Impact Factor