[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common intestinal emergency among premature infants. Risk factors in premature infants include immature intestinal immunity and an intestinal microbiota dominated by hospital-acquired bacteria. Some probiotics have been shown to decrease the incidence of NEC in premature infants. Among term infants, NEC is rare. However, among term infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD), the incidence of NEC is similar to that of premature infants but with even greater mortality rates. Mechanisms by which NEC occurs in term infants with CCHD are unknown. Of central interest is the potential role of changes in the intestinal microbiota and whether these can be modified with probiotic bacteria; accordingly, we review the literature, propose hypotheses and present the rationale for future studies involving preliminary probiotic clinical trials.
Gut Microbes 01/2010; 1(6):359-66. DOI:10.4161/gmic.1.6.14077
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concomitant use of prescription medicines and self-medication, including over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, vitamins, and complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) among Finnish children aged under 12 years.
We carried out a nationwide postal survey of the use of medicines by a representative sample (n = 6000) of Finnish children aged under 12 years in spring 2007. A response rate of 67% (n = 4032) was achieved. The current use of prescription medicines and the use of OTC medicines, vitamins, and CAMs in the preceding 2 days were the main outcome measures.
In total, 17% of children had used prescription medicines and 50% some self-medication. The corresponding figures for OTC medicines, vitamins, and CAMs use were 17, 37, and 11%, respectively. Drugs for obstructive airway diseases were the most common prescription medicines, whereas analgesics and antipyretics, including non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-medicines (NSAID), were the most common OTC medicines reported. Vitamin D was the most common vitamin, while fish oils and fatty acids were the most common CAMs used. Ten percent of the children had used prescription medicines and self-medication concomitantly.
Most of the children's medication consists of self-medication, and especially of vitamin use. However, also a considerable proportion had used prescription medicines, and a minority prescription medicines and self-medication concomitantly. In three of the cases, a combination of prescription and OTC medicine with a potential risk for interactions were found. Physicians should be aware of this wide use of self-medication when prescribing medicines.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 10/2010; 19(10):1000-8. DOI:10.1002/pds.1963 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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